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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149854 matches for " Ariyeh H. Maller "
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Towards a Resolution of the Galactic Spin Crisis: Mergers, Feedback, and Spin Segregation
Ariyeh H. Maller,Avishai Dekel
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05646.x
Abstract: We model in simple terms the angular-momentum problems of galaxy formation in CDM cosmologies, and identify the key elements of a scenario that may solve them. The buildup of angular momentum is modeled via dynamical friction and tidal stripping in a sequence of mergers. We demonstrate how over-cooling in incoming halos leads to a transfer of angular momentum from the baryons to the dark matter, in conflict with observations. By incorporating a simple recipe of supernova feedback, we are able to solve the problems of angular momentum in disk formation. Gas removal from the numerous small incoming halos, which merge to become the low specific angular momentum (j) component of the product, eliminates the low-j baryons. Heating and puffing-up of the gas in larger incoming halos, combined with efficient tidal stripping, reduces the angular momentum loss of baryons due to dynamical friction. Dependence of the feedback effects on the progenitor halo mass implies that the spin of baryons is typically higher for lower mass halos. The observed low baryonic fraction in dwarf galaxies is used to calibrate the characteristic velocity associated with supernova feedback, yielding ~100 km/s, within the range of theoretical expectations. We then find that the model naturally produces the observed distribution of the spin parameter among dwarf and bright disk galaxies, as well as the j profile inside these galaxies. This suggests that the model indeed captures the main features of a full scenario for resolving the spin crisis.
Resolving the Spin Crisis: Mergers and Feedback
Avishai Dekel,Ariyeh H. Maller
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1007/10899892_41
Abstract: We model in simple terms the angular momentum (J) problem of galaxy formation in CDM, and identify the key elements of a scenario that can solve it. The buildup of J is modeled via dynamical friction and tidal stripping in mergers. This reveals how over-cooling in incoming halos leads to transfer of J from baryons to dark matter (DM), in conflict with observations. By incorporating a simple recipe of supernova feedback, we match the observed J distribution in disks. Gas removal from small incoming halos, which make the low-J component of the product, eliminates the low-J baryons. Partial heating and puffing-up of the gas in larger incoming halos, combined with tidal stripping, reduces the J loss of baryons. This implies a higher baryonic spin for lower mass halos. The observed low baryonic fraction in dwarf galaxies is used to calibrate the characteristic velocity associated with supernova feedback, yielding v_fb sim 100 km/s, within the range of theoretical expectations. The model then reproduces the observed distribution of spin parameter among dwarf and bright galaxies, as well as the J distribution inside these galaxies. This suggests that the model captures the main features of a full scenario for resolving the spin crisis.
Statistical lensing by galactic discs
Andrew W. Blain,Ole Moeller,Ariyeh H. Maller
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02221.x
Abstract: The high-magnification gravitational lensing cross-section of a galaxy is enhanced significantly if a baryonic disc is embedded in its dark matter halo. We investigate the effects of a population of such disks on the probability of detecting strongly lensed images of distant galaxies and quasars. The optical depth to lensing is always more than doubled. The effects are particularly significant at magnifications greater than about 50, for which the optical depth typically increases by a factor greater than 5. If either the fraction of discs or the typical disc-to-halo mass ratio increases with redshift, then the optical depth is expected to be increased even further. Obscuration by dust in the lensing disc is expected to counteract the associated enhanced magnification bias for surveys in the optical waveband, but not in the radio and millimetre/submillimetre wavebands. The presence of galactic discs should hence lead to a significant increase in the number of lensed galaxies and quasars detected in both radio- and millimetre/submillimetre-selected surveys. An increase by a factor of about 3 is expected, enhancing the strong case for millimetre/submillimetre-wave lens surveys using the next generation of ground-based telescopes and the FIRST and Planck Surveyor space missions.
Modeling Angular-Momentum History in Dark-Matter Halos
Ariyeh H. Maller,Avishai Dekel,Rachel S. Somerville
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.04983.x
Abstract: We model the acquisition of spin by dark-matter halos in semi-analytic merger trees. We explore two different algorithms; one in which halo spin is acquired from the orbital angular momentum of merging satellites, and another in which halo spin is gained via tidal torquing on shells of material while still in the linear regime. We find that both scenarios produce the characteristic spin distribution of halos found in N-body simulations, namely, a log-normal distribution with mean ~0.04 and standard deviation ~0.5 in the log. A perfect match requires fine-tuning of two free parameters. Both algorithms also reproduce the general insensitivity of the spin distribution to halo mass, redshift and cosmology seen in N-body simulations. The spin distribution can be made strictly constant by physically motivated scalings of the free parameters. In addition, both schemes predict that halos which have had recent major mergers have systematically larger spin values. These algorithms can be implemented within semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on merger trees. They yield detailed predictions of galaxy properties that strongly depend on angular momentum (such as size and surface brightness) as a function of merger history and environment.
The Galaxy Angular Correlation Functions and Power Spectrum from the Two Micron All Sky Survey
Ariyeh H. Maller,Daniel H. McIntosh,Neal Katz,Martin D. Weinberg
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/426181
Abstract: We calculate the angular correlation function of galaxies in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We minimize the possible contamination by stars, dust, seeing and sky brightness by studying their cross correlation with galaxy density, and limiting the galaxy sample accordingly. We measure the correlation function at scales between 1-18 arcdegs using a half million galaxies. We find a best fit power law to the correlation function has a slope of 0.76 and an amplitude of 0.11. However, there are statistically significant oscillations around this power law. The largest oscillation occurs at about 0.8 degrees, corresponding to 2.8 h^{-1} Mpc at the median redshift of our survey, as expected in halo occupation distribution descriptions of galaxy clustering. We invert the angular correlation function using Singular Value Decomposition to measure the three-dimensional power spectrum and find that it too is in good agreement with previous measurements. A dip seen in the power spectrum at small wavenumber k is statistically consistent with CDM-type power spectra. A fit of CDM-type power spectra to k < 0.2 h Mpc^{-1} give constraints of \Gamma_{eff}=0.116 and \sigma_8=0.96. This suggest a K_s-band linear bias of 1.1+/-0.2. This \Gamma_{eff} is different from the WMAP CMB derived value. On small scales the power-law shape of our power spectrum is shallower than that derived for the SDSS. These facts together imply a biasing of these different galaxies that might be nonlinear, that might be either waveband or luminosity dependent, and that might have a nonlocal origin.
Gas-Rich Mergers in LCDM: Disk Survivability and the Baryonic Assembly of Galaxies
Kyle R. Stewart,James S. Bullock,Risa H. Wechsler,Ariyeh H. Maller
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/702/1/307
Abstract: We use N-body simulations and observationally-normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust, arguably inevitable expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z~2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M > 0.3) experienced by Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshift. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed late-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of spheroid-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M_DM ~ 10^11-10^13 Msun. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Also, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is substantial. Approximately ~30% of the cold baryonic material in M_star ~ 10^10 Msun$ (M_DM ~ 10^11.5 Msun) galaxies is accreted as cold gas in major mergers. For more massive galaxies with M_star ~ 10^11 Msun (M_DM ~ 10^13 Msun) the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers is even higher, ~50%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass deposition is almost unavoidable, and provides a limit on the fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons that can originate in cold flows or from hot halo cooling. (Abridged)
The Clustering Dipole of the Local Universe from the Two Micron All Sky Survey
Ariyeh H. Maller,Daniel H. McIntosh,Neal Katz,Martin D. Weinberg
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/380388
Abstract: The unprecedented sky coverage and photometric uniformity of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provides a rich resource for investigating the galaxies populating the local Universe. A full characterization of the large-scale clustering distribution is important for theoretical studies of structure formation. 2MASS offers an all-sky view of the local galaxy population at 2.15 micron, unbiased by young stellar light and minimally affected by dust. We use 2MASS to map the local distribution of galaxies, identifying the largest structures in the nearby universe. The inhomogeneity of these structures causes an acceleration on the Local Group of galaxies, which can be seen in the dipole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We find that the direction of the 2MASS clustering dipole is 11 degrees from the CMB dipole, confirming that the local galaxy distribution accelerates the Local Group. From the magnitude of the dipole we find a value of the linear bias parameter b=1.37 +/- 0.3 in the K_s-band. The 2MASS clustering dipole is 19 degrees from the latest measurement of the dipole using galaxies detected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) suggesting that bias may be non-linear in some wavebands.
Damped Lyman alpha systems and galaxy formation models - II. High ions and Lyman limit systems
Ariyeh H. Maller,Jason X. Prochaska,Rachel S. Somerville,Joel R. Primack
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06660.x
Abstract: We investigate a model for the high-ionization state gas associated with observed damped Lyman-alpha systems, based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation set within the paradigm of hierarchical structure formation. In our model, the hot gas in halos and sub-halos gives rise to CIV absorption, while the low-ionization state gas is associated with the cold gas in galaxies. The model matches the distribution of CIV column densities and leads naturally to kinematic properties that are in good agreement with the data. We examine the contribution of both hot and cold gas to sub-damped systems and suggest that the properties of these systems can be used as an important test of the model. We expect that sub-DLA systems will generally be composed of a single gas disk and thus predict that they should have markedly different kinematics than the damped systems. Finally, we find that hot halo gas produces less than one third of Lyman limit systems at redshift three. We model the contribution of mini-halos (halos with virial velocities < 35 km/s) to Lyman limit systems and find that they may contain as much gas as is observed in these systems. However, if we adopt realistic models of the gas density distribution we find that these systems are not a significant source of Lyman limit absorption. Instead we suggest that uncollapsed gas outside of virialized halos is responsible for most of the Lyman limit systems at high redshift.
Making Damped Lyman Alpha Systems in Semi-Analytic Models
Ariyeh H. Maller,Rachel S. Somerville,Jason X. Prochaska,Joel R. Primack
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1063/1.58642
Abstract: The velocity profiles of weak metal absorption lines can be used to observationally probe the kinematic state of gas in damped Lyman-alpha systems. Prochaska and Wolfe have argued that the flat distribution of velocity widths combined with the asymmetric line profiles indicate that the DLAS are disks with large rotation velocities. An alternative explanation has been proposed by Haehnelt, Steinmetz, and Rauch, in which the observed large velocity widths and asymmetric profiles can be produced by lines of sight passing through two or more clumps each having relatively small internal velocity dispersions. We investigate the plausibility of this scenario in the context of semi-analytic models based on hierarchical merging trees and including simple treatments of gas dynamics, star formation, supernova feedback, and chemical evolution. We find that all the observed properties of the metal-line systems including the distribution of velocities and the asymmetric profiles, can be reproduced by lines of sight passing through sub-clumps that are bound within larger virialized dark matter halos. In order to produce enough multiple hits, we find that the cold gas must be considerably more extended than the optical radius of the proto-galaxies, perhaps even beyond the tidal radius of the sub-halo. This could occur due to tidal stripping or supernova-driven outflows.
What Damped Ly-alpha Systems Tell Us About the Radial Distribution of Cold Gas at High Redshift
Ariyeh H. Maller,Jason X. Prochaska,Rachel S. Somerville,Joel R. Primack
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We investigate the properties of damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAS) in semi-analytic models, focusing on whether the models can reproduce the kinematic properties of low-ionization metal lines described by Prochaska & Wolfe (1997b, 1998). We explore a variety of approaches for modelling the radial distribution of the cold neutral gas associated with the galaxies in our models, and find that our results are very sensitive to this ingredient. If we use an approach based on Fall & Efstathiou (1980), in which the sizes of the discs are determined by conservation of angular momentum, we find that the majority of the DLAS correspond to a single galactic disc. These models generically fail to reproduce the observed distribution of velocity widths. In alternative models in which the gas discs are considerably more extended, a significant fraction of DLAS arise from lines of sight intersecting multiple gas discs in a common halo. These models produce kinematics that fit the observational data, and also seem to agree well with the results of recent hydrodynamical simulations. Thus we conclude that Cold Dark Matter based models of galaxy formation can be reconciled with the kinematic data, but only at the expense of the standard assumption that DLAS are produced by rotationally supported gas discs whose sizes are determined by conservation of angular momentum. We suggest that the distribution of cold gas at high redshift may be dominated by another process, such as tidal streaming due to mergers.
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