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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15165 matches for " Arbakariya Bin Ariff "
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Pullulanase: Role in Starch Hydrolysis and Potential Industrial Applications
Siew Ling Hii,Joo Shun Tan,Tau Chuan Ling,Arbakariya Bin Ariff
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/921362
Abstract: The use of pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase. 1. Introduction Starch is a major industrial raw material and is chemically and/or enzymatically processed into variety of products for subsequent use in various industries, ranging from food (especially high-fructose and glucose syrups) to washing detergent industries [1–3]. Starch is, after cellulose, one of the most abundant heterogeneous polysaccharide produced by plants in the form of water insoluble granules. It is a polymeric carbohydrate, composed of C, H, and O atoms in the ratio of 6?:?10?:?5, (C6H10O5)??. Molecules of starch are made of hundreds or thousands of glucose, corresponding to values of ?? that range from 50 to several thousands. Glucose units are linked to one another through C1 oxygen as glucosidic bond. Glucosidic bonds are stable under alkaline conditions while treatment of starch with acids or certain enzymes breaks the polymer into its constituent glucose molecules. The end unit of the polymeric chain has a latent aldehyde group and is known as the reducing end group. Most starches are mixture of two polymers with high molecular weight: (i) a linear chain molecule—amylose, and (ii) a branch
EFFECT OF VARIOUS PRETREATMENTS OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBRES FOR SUBSEQUENT USE AS SUBSTRATE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS TERREUS
Mahdi Shahriarinour,Mohd Noor Abdul Wahab,Arbakariya Bin Ariff,Shuhaimi Mustafa
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: The possibility of using treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus was studied using shaking flask fermentation. The effect of different chemical pretreatments, i.e. formic acid, acetic acid, propylamine, phosphoric acid, and n-butylamine, on the suitability of OPEFB fibres as fermentation substrate was investigated. The findings revealed that pretreatment with these chemicals significantly (P<0.05) increased the cellulose and reduced the lignin contents prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fermentation using OPEFB fibres pretreated with phosphoric acid gave the highest cellulase production, which was related to high cellulose content. Further improvement in cellulase production was obtained when the chemically pretreated OPEFB fibres were subsequently treated hydrothermally (autoclaved at 160oC for 10 min) and then biologically (using effective microorganisms). The final activity of the three main components of cellulase (FPase, CMCase, and β-glucosidase) obtained in fermentation by A. terreus using optimally treated OPEFB fibres was (0.77 U mL 1, 8.5 U mL-1, and 6.1 U mL-1), respectively. The production of all these three major components of cellulase using pretreated OPEFB fibres (i.e. chemical, hydrothermal, and biological) were about three times higher than those obtained from fermentation using untreated OPEFB fibres.
Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells
Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis,Muhajir Hamid,Arbakariya B. Ariff
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/952452
Abstract: The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation.
Screening, Isolation and Selection of Cellulolytic Fungi from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre
Mahdi Shahriarinour,Mohd Noor Abd Wahab,Arbakariya Ariff,Rosfarizan Mohamad
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Screening and isolation of cellulolytic fungi was done using compost of oil palm empty fruit bunch conducted at a local factory located in Sri Ulu Langat, Dengkil, Selangor, Malaysia. This research was aimed to isolate of cellulolytic fungi with over production of cellulase components. Ten isolated fungi had shown the ability to degrade cellulose base on decolorization of CMC selective agar using Grams iodine as color indicator and cellulase production in shake flask fermentation. Aspergillus (R4) was selected as over producer of cellulase enzyme among ten isolated fungi. The Aspergillus (R4) with highest clearing zone on CMC agar (50 mm) and cellulolytic activity (CMCase 3.05, FPase 0.61 and β-glucosidase 1.75 U mL-1) was identified as Aspergillus terrus. We identified Aspergillus terrues as highly cellulolytic in producing cellulase activity. Identification of over producers of cellulase enzymes can help industries exploits of this enzyme.
Assessment of Monacolin in the Fermented Products Using Monascus purpureus FTC5391
Zahra Ajdari,Afshin Ebrahimpour,Musaalbakri Abdul Manan,Muhajir Hamid,Rosfarizan Mohamad,Arbakariya B. Ariff
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/426168
Abstract: Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.
Nutritional Requirements for the Improvement of Growth and Sporulation of Several Strains of Monascus purpureus on Solid State Cultivation
Zahra Ajdari,Afshin Ebrahimpour,Musaalbakri Abdul Manan,Muhajir Hamid,Rosfarizan Mohamad,Arbakariya B. Ariff
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/487329
Abstract: This paper describes the nutritional requirements for the improvement of growth and sporulation of several strains of Monascus purpureus on solid state cultivation. The findings revealed that glucose enhanced growth of all M. purpureus strains tested but inhibited the sporulation rate. On the other hand, sucrose induced sporulation but inhibited production of cell mass. A combination of glucose and sucrose greatly enhanced sporulation and cell mass production of M. purpureus. Although growth and sporulation rate were related to the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio), the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources also greatly influenced the growth kinetics. Among the media tested, Hiroi-PDA medium was the most preferred medium for all M. purpureus strains tested for the enhancement of radial growth rate, sporulation, and cell production. Hence, Hiroi-PDA could be suggested as the generic basal medium for the cultivation of M. purpureus. However, individual medium optimization is required for significant enhancement in growth and sporulation of each strain of M. purpureus.
Effect of extrinsic and intrinsic parameters on inulinase production by Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611
Dinarvand,Mojdeh; B. Ariff,Arbakariya; Moeini,Hassan; Masomian,Malihe; Mousavi,Seyed Sadegh; Nahavandi,Reza; Mustafa,Shuhaimi;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2012,
Abstract: background: inulinase is a versatile enzyme from glycoside hydrolase family which targets the β-2, 1 linkage of fructopolymers. in the present study, the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on inulinase production by aspergillus niger atcc 20611 was investigated in shake-?asks. results: the highest extracellular inulinase (3199 u/ ml) was obtained in the presence of 25% (w/v) sucrose, 0.5% (w/v) meat extract, 1.5% (w/v) nano3 and 2.5 mm (v/v) zn2+, at initial ph of 6.5, temperature 35oc and 6% (v/v) of spores suspension in the agitation speed of 100 rpm. surfactants showed an inhibitory effect on enzyme production. the optimum temperature for inulinase activity was found to be 50oc. tlc analysis showed the presence of both exo- and endo-inulinase. conclusion: sucrose, zn2+, and aeration were found to be the most effective elements in inulinase production by a. niger atcc 20611. tlc analysis also showed that the crude enzyme contained both endo and exo-inulinases. the strain is suggested as a potential candidate for industrial enzymatic production of fructose from inulin.
Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass: A potential biosorbent for chromium ions removal

Oon Lee Kang,Nazaruddin Ramli,Mamot Sai,Musa Ahma,Suhaimi Md Yasir,Arbakariya Ariff,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract:
Production of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase (CGTase) by Bacillus lehensis S8 using Sago Starch as Carbon Source
Pui-Woon Yap,Arbakariya B. Ariff,Kwan-Kit Woo,Siew-Ling Hii
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Production of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is influenced by the reaction of the CGTase-producing strain towards various types of substrates. Variations in environmental factors such as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources possess significant effects on CGTase production. The present study was conducted with the prime purpose to optimise the cultivation medium in enhancing the CGTase production by a locally isolated alkalophilic Bacillus sp. The CGTase fermentation processes were performed in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 200 mL of production medium with continuous shaking at 200 rpm and 37°C. Optimisation process was conducted by using change-a-factor-at-a-time method. From the study, an indigenous Malaysian carbon source, i.e., sago starch was found capable in improving the CGTase production with the CGTase yield of 18452 U g-1 at 0.1% w/v of starch. In addition to that, by using yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source in the medium, the CGTase excretion by the isolate is greatly enhanced as compared to the basal medium which employed two types of nitrogenous compounds. The optimised growth medium that has been successfully developed for high level of CGTase production by using the locally isolated Bacillus lehensis in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask is comprised of (% w/v): 0.1% sago starch, 1% yeast extract, 1% sodium carbonate, 0.009% magnesium sulphate and 0.1% di-potassium hydrogen phosphate.
High performance enzymatic synthesis of oleyl oleate using immobilised lipase from Candida antartica
Mat Radzi,Salina; Basri,Mahiran; Bakar Salleh,Abu; Ariff,Arbakariya; Mohammad,Rosfarizan; Abdul Rahman,Mohd. Basyaruddin; Abdul Rahman,Raja Noor Zaliha Raja;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: high performance enzymatic synthesis of oleyl oleate, a liquid wax ester was carried out by lipase-catalysed esterification of oleic acid and oleyl alcohol. various reaction parameters were optimised to obtain high yield of oleyl oleate. the optimum condition to produce oleyl oleate was reaction time; 5 min, organic solvents of log p ≥ 3.5, temperature; 40-50oc, amount of enzyme; 0.2-0.4 g and molar ratio of oleyl alcohol to oleic acid; 2:1. the operational stability of enzyme was maintained at >90% yield up to 9 cycles. analysis of the yield of the product showed that at optimum conditions, >95% liquid wax esters were produced
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