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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192 matches for " Arayaselassie Abebe Semu "
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The Study of Homegarden Agrobiodiversity, Practices of Homegardening and Its Role for In-Situ Conservation of Plant Biodiversity in Eastern Hararghe, Kombolcha Town Oromia Regional State Ethiopia  [PDF]
Arayaselassie Abebe Semu
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.82016
Abstract: Homegarden plays a vital role for the livelihood of the people living in town. Homegarden agrobiodiversity was studied to highlight homegarden frequency, types, plant species, growth form and associated indigenous knowledge. The research was conducted during January to April 2017. A total of 180 randomly selected households were included in the survey. Ethnobotanical data were collected from purposively selected 60 homegardens using observations and semi-structured interviews while markets survey was conducted through structured questionnaire for homegarden products. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and similarity and Shannon wiener diversity index. The results indicated that 128 (71%) of the households were practicing home gardening. The homegarden plant composition gave 78 species belonging to 35 families. The representative families and number of species under each family were founded that the family Solonaceae, and Rutaceae rank top of the list (6 species) each followed by Fabaceae and Lamiaceae (5 species each) and Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Brassicaceae (4 species) each. Catha edulis, Lantana camara and Ruta chalepensis had the highest frequency of species followed by the families Asteraceae, Rutaceae and Poaceae. Catha edulis, Rhammus prinoides and Ruta chalepensis were among the families found in homegardens. It can be concluded that homegrdens of Kombolcha are rich in biodiversity. The present study showed the existing status of homegardens and local knowledge contribution to the farming systems in conservation of the biological diversity. In addition, plant species providing substantial benefits and factors combined to determining homegarden diversity are documented.
Assessment of the Impact of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Performance of the High Aswan Dam  [PDF]
Asegdew G. Mulat, Semu A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66057

A Large scale hydropower dam known as Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is under construction on the Blue Nile River just upstream of the Ethiopian-Sudan border in Ethiopia. The GERD has an active storage capacity of more than 60,000 Mm3 and is anticipated to produce 6000 MW of hydropower energy. The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of the dam on the performance of the High Aswan Dam (HAD) during filling and operation phases using a simulation model using Mike Basin river basin simulation model. The results indicate the planned 6 years filling period is sufficient to fill the reservoir with little impact on the current irrigation water demands from HAD in Egypt without additional management investment. There will be about 12% and 7% of reduction of annual energy output from High Aswan Dam during the filling and after filling stage of GERD respectively. Cumulative Energy production from the two dams will increase significantly Water loss at HAD due to evaporation will decreases by 22%. Overall performance of HAD during and after filling of the GERD remains at a reliability level of 96%. The study advises to utilize the results cautiously as it is based on only one historical realization of the many possible scenarios that may evolve in the future.

RETRACTED:Revisiting Systems Type Black-Box Rainfall-Runoff Models for Flow Forecasting Application  [PDF]
Dereje Tesfahun Mengistu, Semu Ayalew Moges, Asgeir Sorteberg
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.81006

Short Retraction Notice

This article has been retracted according to COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Since authors have their personal reasons, they have to withdraw this paper from Journal of Water Resource and Protection.

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper which is marked \"RETRACTED\".
Impacts of Chromium from Tannery Effluent and Evaluation of Alternative Treatment Options  [PDF]
Alebel Abebe Belay
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.11007
Abstract: The paper has focused on the challenges/impacts of tannery effluent and evaluates the alternative treatment options used to treat, recover or recycle chromium from the waste water. The paper was done entirely on secondary data by consulting literature sources including scientific journals, chapters of books, conference report papers and websites. The results of this review paper indicated that chromium is highly toxic and carcinogenic to human beings, animals, plants and the general environment (soil and water sediment). It is found out that chrome is the primary threat when ever tanning industry comes in to practice. Though many treatment options were evaluated to prevent its consequence on the environment, neither of them could achieve to treat or recover chrome 100%. Treatment options are either; inef-ficient, complicated, energy demanding, costly or applicable to a certain parts of the world due to technology or skilled man power demand. Therefore, to tackle this serious challenge stringent environmental regulation with law enforce-ment has to be exercised to use better treatment system which is widely applicable. Polluters must also know the envi-ronmental cost of their industry and treated according to polluter pay or precautionary principles. Moreover, the gen-eral public has to be aware of it and all concerned organizations and governments has to work hand in hand to reach zero discharge level or at least to attain the EPA chrome discharge limit
Assessment of Defaulting from Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) and Its Determinants in Benin City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Adolphus Inotu, Fekadu Abebe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.21004
Abstract: Background: Defaulting from Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) is a big challenge to the effective control of TB. There are no published data on defaulting from DOTS in Benin City which necessitated this study to determine the rate of defaulting and identify factors that significantly contribute to defaulting in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: This was a case control study from August to December 2011 of 1253 TB patients placed on DOTS in Benin City. The two DOTS centres used for the study were situated in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and Egor local government secretariat, both in Egor local government area (LGA) in Benin City. Out of 1253 patients registered on DOTS in the two study centres, 722 patients comprising of 172 defaulters and 550 non- defaulters were selected for the study using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association between independent variables and defaulting. Results: The default rate was 23.8%. Defaulting was significantly associated with: male sex (OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.60 - 5.80), being married (OR 3.06; 95%CI 1.34 - 6.99), a history of travel (OR 6.87; 95%CI 3.19 - 14.80) and concomitant drug use with TB drugs (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.02 - 3.73). Conclusion: The default rate from DOTS in Benin City and the factors significantly associated with defaulting have given us some information initially unavailable about defaulting from DOTS in Benin City. TB control programmes taking these factors into consideration need to be done to promote compliance to treatment.
Utilization of Youth Reproductive Health Services and Associated Factors among High School Students in Bahir Dar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Meskerem Abebe, Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42012
Abstract: Introduction: Young people in Ethiopia face greater reproductive health risks than adults. Despite efforts that were made on youth to utilize reproductive health service, studies show that there is little information about the extent to which youth utilize available health services. For the proper planning of appropriate health services for youth, it is crucial to have knowledge on the pattern of their use and its associated factors. So this study was conducted from June to September 2013 to assess utilization of youth reproductive health and its associated factors among high school students in Bahir Dar town, Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2013. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among High school student from June to September 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the total of 818 study participants. Data were collected by means of a pretested standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated using binary logistic regression; p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study indicated that among 818 students, 480(58.7%) were females. The data indicates that, 32% of youth utilized youth reproductive health service. Barriers in utilizing reproductive health services, for 31% of the students were due to inconvenience hours and 28.5% were due to fear of being seen by parents or people whom they know. Among socio-demographic predictors, age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services. Students with age 20-24 were 2.31 times more likely to utilize reproductive health service than age15-19 (AOR = 2.31, CI 95% (1.01, 5.28)). Similarly, students who had reproductive health problems were 1.54 times more likely to utilize reproductive health services than students who had no reproductive illness. Conclusions: The majority of youth were not utilizing reproductive health services. Age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services.

GIS Based Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model: The Case of Jabi Tehinan Woreda, ANRS, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Amsalu, Abebe Mengaw
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511054
Soil degradation in the form of soil erosion is a serious and continuous environmental problem in Jabi Tehinan Woreda. Uncontrolled land use, deforestation, over cultivation, overgrazing and exploitation of biomass for firewood, construction and other household uses due to increasing population ultimately lead to severe soil erosion. The impact of natural hazards like erosion can be minimized and ultimately controlled by disaster preparedness maps. Therefore, the overall objective of this paper is to quantify and map an estimated soil loss by examining different topographic and anthropogenic factors for the planning and implementations of sustainable soil conservation and management system in the study area. This study had integrated Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques to quantify and map erosion vulnerable areas using RUSLE model. Slope gradient, slope length, soil type, soil conservations techniques, cover management and rainfall variables were used as input model parameters/variables. The data had been collected and analyzed from different land sat imageries, SRTM data, topomaps and point interpolations of primary data. Finally, the aggregated effects of all parameters had been analyzed and soil loss from the area was calculated using RUSEL models. After analyzing all model parameters, areas in steeper slope with Lithosols, Eutric Nitosols, Orthic Luvisols, croplands, bare lands and river banks have been identified as the most erosion vulnerable areas. Quantitatively, an estimated annual soil loss in Jabi Tehinan Woreda ranges from nearly 0 in south and central parts of the area to 504.6 t/ha/yr in steeply sloping mountainous areas of the north and north-eastern parts of the catchments.
Application of Time Series Analysis to Annual Rainfall Values in Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sintayehu Adefires Abebe
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2018.73005
Abstract: For many years planning and management of water resources involved modeling and simulation of temporally sequenced and stochastic hydrologic events. Rainfall process is one of such hydrologic events which calls for time series analysis to better understand interesting features contained in it. Many statistics-based methods are available to simulate and predict such a kind of time series. Autoregressive (AR), moving average (MA), autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are among those methods. In this study a search was conducted to identify and examine a capable stochastic model for annual rainfall series (over the period 1954-2015) of Debre Markos town, Ethiopia. For the historical series, normality and stationarity tests were conducted to check if the time series was from a normally distributed and stationary process. Shapiro-Wilk (SW), Anderson-Darling (AD) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests were among the normality tests conducted whereas, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests were among the stationarity tests. Based on the test results, logarithmic transformation and first order differencing were performed to bring the original series to a normal and stationary series. Results of model fitting showed that three models namely, AR (2), MA (1) and ARMA (2,1) were capable in describing the annual rainfall series. A diagnostic check was performed on model residuals and ARMA (2,1) was found to be the best model among the candidates. Furthermore, three information criteria: Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to select the best model. In this regard, too, the least information discrepancy between the underlying process and the fitted model was obtained from ARMA (2,1) model. Hence, this model was considered as a better representative of the annual rainfall values and was used to predict five years
Brief communication: Unilateral blindness and low vision due to strabismic amblyopia
Abebe Bejiga
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: To assess the magnitude of unilateral blindness or low vision caused by strabismic amblyopia in astrabismic population, a prospective study was conducted between November 15, 1995 and March 20, 1997 at Menelik II Hospital. The visual acuity of 361 patients with strabismus was evaluated. The average age of persentation was 15.8 years. Visual acuity of less than or equal to 3/60 in the involved eye was considered as blind, while visual acuity better than 3/60 and less than or equal to 6/18 was regarded as low vision. Forty one (11%) patients had unilateral blindness and 72(20%) had low vision in the amblyopic eye. In conclusion, unilateral blindness or low vision as a result of strabismic amblyopia was significant among strabismic patients, especially when the age of persentation of our cases was considered. This calls for health education to increase public awareness so that parents seek medical advice early for their strabismic children. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: 2000, 14(1): 109-112)
Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation
M Abebe
Journal of Business and Administrative Studies , 2009,
Abstract: This paper aims to serve as a springboard for research in areas of disaster management in Ethiopia. While there have been critical issues that merit intellectual attention and resources, very little has so far been done in the area. This paper delved into the trajectories that Ethiopian disaster management has gone through. It reviews the checkered history of Ethiopian Disaster Management system (EDM) from circa mid-1970s. Having thrown some light on the lessons of experiences from other countries, it indicates the pitfalls EDM has recently faced, and suggests policy and institutional scenarios to overcome them.
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