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OALib Journal期刊

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Study of QCD critical point using the canonical ensemble method
Anyi Li
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The existence of the QCD critical point at non-zero baryon density is not only of great interest for experimental physics but also a challenge for the theory. Any hint of the existence of the first order phase transition and, particularly, its critical point will be valuable towards a full understanding of the QCD phase diagram. We use lattice simulation based on the canonical ensemble method to explore the finite baryon density and finite temperature region and look for the QCD critical point. As a benchmark, we run simulations for the four degenerate flavor QCD where we observe a clear signal of the expected first order phase transition. In the two flavor case, we do not see any signal for temperatures as low as $0.83 \rm{T_c}$. Although our real world contains two light quarks and one heavier quark, three degenerate flavor case shares a lot of similar phase structures as the QCD. We scan the phase diagram using clover fermions with $m_\pi \approx 700{MeV}$ on $6^3\times4$ lattices. The baryon chemical potential is measured as we increase the baryon number and we see the characteristic "S-shape" that signals the first order phase transition. We determine the phase boundaries by Maxwell construction and report our preliminary results for the location of critical point for the present lattice.
Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories
Anyi Li
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/432/1/012024
Abstract: Lattice four-fermion models containing $N$ flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under $Z_2$ and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. In this talk, we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.
Real-Time Timing Channel Detection in a Software-Defined Networking Virtual Environment  [PDF]
Anyi Liu, Jim X. Chen, Harry Wechsler
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.76023
Abstract: Despite extensive research, timing channels (TCs) are still known as a principal category of threats that aim to leak and transmit information by perturbing the timing or ordering of events. Existing TC detection approaches use either signature-based approaches to detect known TCs or anomaly-based approach by modeling the legitimate network traffic in order to detect unknown TCs. Un-fortunately, in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment, most existing TC detection approaches would fail due to factors such as volatile network traffic, imprecise timekeeping mechanisms, and dynamic network topology. Furthermore, stealthy TCs can be designed to mimic the legitimate traffic pattern and thus evade anomalous TC detection. In this paper, we overcome the above challenges by presenting a novel framework that harnesses the advantages of elastic re-sources in the cloud. In particular, our framework dynamically configures SDN to enable/disable differential analysis against outbound network flows of different virtual machines (VMs). Our framework is tightly coupled with a new metric that first decomposes the timing data of network flows into a number of using the discrete wavelet-based multi-resolution transform (DWMT). It then applies the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) to measure the variance among flow pairs. The appealing feature of our approach is that, compared with the existing anomaly detection approaches, it can detect most existing and some new stealthy TCs without legitimate traffic for modeling, even with the presence of noise and imprecise timekeeping mechanism in an SDN virtual environment. We implement our framework as a prototype system, OBSERVER, which can be dynamically deployed in an SDN environment. Empirical evaluation shows that our approach can efficiently detect TCs with a higher detection rate, lower latency, and negligible performance overhead compared to existing approaches.
Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP01(2011)018
Abstract: We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and this leads to a severe sign problem. On the other hand simple bags mostly have a positive weight. Since the complex bags almost cancel each other, we suggest that eliminating them from the partition function may be a good approximation. This modified partition function suffers only from a mild sign problem. We also find a simpler model which does not suffer from any sign problem and may still be a good approximation at small and intermediate values of the hopping parameter. We also prove that when the hopping parameter is strictly infinite all fermion bags are non-negative.
Fermion bags, duality and the three dimensional massless lattice Thirring model
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.140404
Abstract: The recently proposed fermion bag approach is a powerful technique to solve some four-fermion lattice field theories. Due to the existence of a duality between strong and weak couplings, the approach leads to efficient Monte Carlo algorithms in both these limits. The new method allows us for the first time to accurately compute quantities close to the quantum critical point in the three dimensional lattice Thirring model with massless fermions on large lattices. The critical exponents at the quantum critical point are found to be $\nu=0.85(1)$, $\eta = 0.65(1)$ and $\eta_\psi = 0.37(1)$.
The generalized fermion-bag approach
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the critical exponents through this study.
Anomaly and a QCD-like phase diagram with massive bosonic baryons
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP12(2010)021
Abstract: We study a strongly coupled $Z_2$ lattice gauge theory with two flavors of quarks, invariant under an exact $\mathrm{SU}(2)\times \mathrm{SU}(2) \times \mathrm{U}_A(1) \times \mathrm{U}_B(1)$ symmetry which is the same as QCD with two flavors of quarks without an anomaly. The model also contains a coupling that can be used to break the $\mathrm{U}_A(1)$ symmetry and thus mimic the QCD anomaly. At low temperatures $T$ and small baryon chemical potential $\mu_B$ the model contains massless pions and massive bosonic baryons similar to QCD with an even number of colors. In this work we study the $T-\mu_B$ phase diagram of the model and show that it contains three phases : (1) A chirally broken phase at low $T$ and $\mu_B$, (2) a chirally symmetric baryon superfluid phase at low $T$ and high $\mu_B$, and (3) a symmetric phase at high $T$. We find that the nature of the finite temperature chiral phase transition and in particular the location of the tricritical point that seperates the first order line from the second order line is affected significantly by the anomaly.
QCD at imaginary chemical potential with Wilson fermions
Andrei Alexandru,Anyi Li
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We investigate the phase diagram in the temperature, imaginary chemical potential plane for QCD with three degenerate quark flavors using Wilson type fermions. While more expensive than the staggered fermions used in past studies in this area, Wilson fermions can be used safely to simulate systems with three quark flavors. In this talk, we focus on the (pseudo)critical line that extends from $\mu=0$ in the imaginary chemical potential plane, trace it to the Roberge-Weiss line, and determine its location relative to the Roberge-Weiss transition point. In order to smoothly follow the (pseudo)critical line in this plane we perform a multi-histogram reweighting in both temperature and chemical potential. To perform reweighting in the chemical potential we use the compression formula to compute the determinants exactly. Our results are compatible with the standard scenario.
Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.091502
Abstract: Lattice four-fermion models containing $N$ flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under $Z_2$ and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. Here we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.
Quantum critical behavior in three dimensional lattice Gross-Neveu models
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Anyi Li
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.021701
Abstract: We study quantum critical behavior in three dimensional lattice Gross-Neveu models containing two massless Dirac fermions. We focus on two models with SU(2) flavor symmetry and either a $Z_2$ or a U(1) chiral symmetry. Both models could not be studied earlier due to sign problems. We use the fermion bag approach which is free of sign problems and compute critical exponents at the phase transitions. We estimate $\nu = 0.83(1)$, $\eta = 0.62(1)$, $\eta_\psi = 0.38(1)$ in the $Z_2$ and $\nu = 0.849(8)$, $\eta = 0.633(8)$, $\eta_\psi = 0.373(3)$ in the U(1) model.
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