Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
The present study explores how affectivity and abstraction value influences the span of attention of normal and retarded population. Five intellectual functioning groups were chosen, six in each (N = 30), from both sexes, age of 11 - 23 (mean age 17.36) years from the urban hospitals and educational institutions. For standardization of stimulus materials and controlling of extraneous variables three preliminary experiments were done. A repeated measure experimental design was followed in the main study. Result shows attention span tends to decrease with an increment in abstraction level in the lower range of intellectual ladder. Affective loading in stimulus materials does not enhance the span of attention, per se it inhibits cognition. The result was interpreted in the light of behavioural observation during the experimental conditions as well as the obtained statistical output. Overall analysis revealed that the persons with moderate retardation scored better in attention span in comparison to mild retarded group where average group scored highest. So, the result of span of attention did not follow the ladder of intellectual impairment. The causal attribution on result was interpreted in terms of environmental distraction and the lack of basic cognitive need of the moderately retarded persons which inversely facilitated better attention span as their attention span remains unaffected by distraction. The result is helpful to design the learning materials for the specific intellectual group.
(20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and
development. To date five P450 enzymes involved in the last four steps of
ecdysteroid biosynthesis from ketodiol to 20E namely Spook (Spo), Phantom
(Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid
biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well
studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca
sexta. All of these genes are called Halloween genes. In this study, we
extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture in India, the cotton
leafworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween
genes partially and converted into amino acid sequences and then three of them
were compared with a very near African species of Spodoptera, Spodoptera
littoralis. The results suggest amino acid substitution
in open reading frame of phantom, shade and disembodied protein in Spodoptera litura.