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This paper explains the causes of
conflicts and tensions in sharecropping relationships, the nature and level of
explains the immediate as well as root causes of conflicts that emerge between
sharecroppers and landlords. Life-world of peasants of Sindh has been explored
at village, sub-regional and regional level. It was found that the historical systemic structures of
exploitation still exist in its refined form in peasant life-world. Peasant
life within village and among village peasants is relatively peaceful.
Conflicts emerge or take serious turn when outside systemic agents get involved
in issues related to sharecropper and landlord. Historically property rights
given to big landlords and feudal lords by imperialistic forces while snatching
the indigenous right of peasants to self-cultivation, is the root cause that
has spawned several sub-systemic pathologies in the life-world of peasants.
Absentee landlordism, Kamdaari system, debt bondage, social bondage, system of
Kann, landlessness, adulterated hybrid seeds, and issues of Sanad are some of
the sub-systemic evils that have emerged over the years. All such sub-systemic
structures put bigger and influential landlords into strategic advantage over
the sharecroppers, particularly landless peasants; the imbalance that perpetuates
“permanent liminality” suppresses reciprocal dialogues and discourages mutual negotiations. Outside systemic
factors like SHO-Landlord nexus or Feudal-Police-Tapedar troika play central
role in conflict creation and exacerbation in landlord-sharecropper
relationship leading to bloody conflicts, caste wars, tribal feuds and
honor-killings, thus, further differentiating and alienating life-world and the
system rural Sindh.
Society and NGOs working in rural Sindh have a dialectical relationship with each
other and with rural communities, particularly peasants and marginalized rural ethnic
groups. In this article, the nature and structure of Sindhi civil society vis-à-vis
their efforts to differentiate themselves from Pakistani civil society and ethnically
hegemonic NGO-structuring, resultant perceived marginalization of Sindhi civil society
and NGOs working in rural Sindh, have been classified, explained and analyzed in
the light of secondary and primary data. Effort has been made to locate historical
intersection points between the spawning of NGOs and the origin of modern Civil
Society networks, and relate it to Sindhi civil society in global perspective. This
paper is the result of the analysis of secondary data validated through an ethnographic
study conducted in Naon Dumbaalo and Chamber area of District Badin, and urban area
of Qasimabad at Hyderabad District in Lower Sindh.
This paper deals with research findings regarding horticulture, a major sources of income in the Village Zandra, District Ziarat in the province of Balochistan. Initially the natives were earning their livelihood through horticulture only. The main contribution was coming through apple production. The process of tree plantation and the people involved in horticulture economy have been discussed in this article. During the last 3 decades few changes have been witnessed. Shift from subsistence to market economy has increased the lust for money due to which the natives have started opting for secondary sources of income. In horticulture they have started using technology, pesticides and chemical fertilizers to maximize their production and profit. They are also switching over to the cultivation of profitable types of apple. The impact of these changes has been analyzed in light of world system theory at micro level. The data presented in this paper have been collected by using qualitative anthropological research techniques.
deals with research findings regarding traditional and modern biomedical healthcare
systems prevailing in the Village Zandra, District Ziarat in the province of Balochistan.
An effort has been made to find out the medical system working in the village which
included both beliefs and perceptions related to health and illness and also the
activities which natives have adopted or developed to maintain and restore their
health. Initially the natives were using traditional and spiritual healing systems,
but now, as their economic condition and literacy rate are improving, they are more
inclined towards the modern methods of treatment. During the last 3 decades, few
changes have been witnessed. Shift from subsistence to market economy has increased
the use of allopathic medicines due to the fact that the natives have started opting
for secondary sources of income. Besides, researcher endeavored to explore the shift
from traditional to modern healthcare and the disparity between natives’ health
related beliefs and practices. The impact of these changes has been analyzed in
light of world system theory at micro level. The data presented in this paper have
been collected by using qualitative anthropological research techniques.