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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7274 matches for " Anvita Gupta "
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Sero-Prevalence of Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) in Cattle Population of South-Western Bangalore Using ELISA Kit  [PDF]
Anvita Gupta, Sobha M. Rani, Pushpa Agrawal, Praveen Kumar Gupta
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24031
Abstract: Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection that affects cattle, sheep, goats and other ruminants, adversely, leading to huge economic losses throughout the world. The estimation of sero-prevalence of this disease in the cattle population of south-western Bangalore, Karnataka, using an immunological assay and statistical analyses, was the objective of this study. One of the diagnostic tools used to detect an antigen or an antibody in animal serum or milk is the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay, which has been widely used in the research and diagnosis of animal and human diseases as its accuracy is of nanogram-picogram/milliltre level. In the present study, indirect-ELISA was used to diagnose and estimate the sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle showing diarrhoea and/or anaemia, at 5 local dairy farms in south-west Bangalore, India. Out of 350 bovine serum samples, 53 (15.14%) were positive, 55 milk samples out of 300 were found positive (18.33%) for antibody against Johne's disease by indirect ELISA. The positive samples were then confirmed by direct smear examination of dung by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Statistical analyses were carried out to indicate the seroprevalence of Johne's disease in the cattle population of this region to be 15 ± 10%, taking a confidence interval of 95%. The results emphasize the need to prevent the further spread of infection to other susceptible animals and humans as the causative organism, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is implicated in Crohn's disease, an irritable bowel syndrome in humans.
A kinetic platform for in silico modeling of the metabolic dynamics in Escherichia coli
Aditya Barve, Anvita Gupta, Suresh M Solapure, et al
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AABC.S14368
Abstract: kinetic platform for in silico modeling of the metabolic dynamics in Escherichia coli Original Research (5310) Total Article Views Authors: Aditya Barve, Anvita Gupta, Suresh M Solapure, et al Published Date December 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 97 - 110 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AABC.S14368 Aditya Barve1, Anvita Gupta2, Suresh M Solapure2, Ansu Kumar1, Vasanthi Ramachandran2, Kothandaraman Seshadri2, Shireen Vali1, Santanu Datta2 1Cellworks Research India Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India; 2AstraZeneca, Bangalore, India Background: A prerequisite for a successful design and discovery of an antibacterial drug is the identification of essential targets as well as potent inhibitors that adversely affect the survival of bacteria. In order to understand how intracellular perturbations occur due to inhibition of essential metabolic pathways, we have built, through the use of ordinary differential equations, a mathematical model of 8 major Escherichia coli pathways. Results: Individual in vitro enzyme kinetic parameters published in the literature were used to build the network of pathways in such a way that the flux distribution matched that reported from whole cells. Gene regulation at the transcription level as well as feedback regulation of enzyme activity was incorporated as reported in the literature. The unknown kinetic parameters were estimated by trial and error through simulations by observing network stability. Metabolites, whose biosynthetic pathways were not represented in this platform, were provided at a fixed concentration. Unutilized products were maintained at a fixed concentration by removing excess quantities from the platform. This approach enabled us to achieve steady state levels of all the metabolites in the cell. The output of various simulations correlated well with those previously published. Conclusion: Such a virtual platform can be exploited for target identification through assessment of their vulnerability, desirable mode of target enzyme inhibition, and metabolite profiling to ascribe mechanism of action following a specific target inhibition. Vulnerability of targets in the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme A was evaluated using this platform. In addition, we also report the utility of this platform in understanding the impact of a physiologically relevant carbon source, glucose versus acetate, on metabolite profiles of bacterial pathogens.
Computational model for pathway reconstruction to unravel the evolutionary significance of melanin synthesis
Sudha Singh,Anvita Gupta Malhotra,Ajay Pandey,Khushhali M Pandey
Bioinformation , 2013,
Abstract: Melanogenesis is a complex multistep process of high molecular weight melanins production by hydroxylation and polymerization of polyphenols. Melanins have a wide range of applications other than being a sun - protection pigment. Melanogenesis pathway exists from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It has evolved over years owing to the fact that the melanin pigment has different roles in diverse taxa of organisms. Melanin plays a pivotal role in the existence of certain bacteria and fungi whereas in higher organisms it is a measure of protection against the harmful radiation. We have done a detailed study on various pathways known for melanin synthesis across species. It was divulged that melanin production is not restricted to tyrosine but there are other secondary metabolites that synthesize melanin in lower organisms. Furthermore the phylogenetic study of these paths was done to understand their molecular and cellular development. It has revealed that the melanin synthesis paths have co-evolved in several groups of organisms. In this study, we also introduce a method for the comparative analysis of a metabolic pathway to study its evolution based on similarity between enzymatic reactions.
The value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in characterization of gliomas growth patterns and treatment efficiency  [PDF]
Anvita Bieza, Gaida Krumina
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.65066

The objective of the study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detection of vital tumor cell infiltration presence in peritumoral brain areas and determination of biochemical changes in the brain parenchyma after received treatment. 73 patients with present, morphologically conformed brain gliomas and 77 gliomas patients in remission stage after combined therapy underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including MRS and DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and metabolite ratios—choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), myoinositol/creatine (MI/Cr), lactate-lipid/creatine (LL/Cr), N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr)—were measured in the tumor, perifocal edema zone, distant and contra-lateral normal appearing white matter. We observed gradual reduction of Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, LL/Cr mean ratios and step-by-step increase of NAA/Cr, FA mean values in the direction from the tumor to the distant and contra-lateral normal-appearing white matter. LL/Cr ratios within distal normal appearing white matter decreased in patients after radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Our study suggests that MRS and DTI in combination with structural MRI sequences enhance vital glial tumor cells areas and possible infiltration border. MRS and DTI quantitative measurements in the glioma peritumoral area reveal pathological changes, despite the normal signal intensity in structural MRI. We suggest that increased LL/Cr ratios and decreased FA values may have the superior implications in the detecting of glial tumors extent along the white matter tracts. NAA/Cr reduction and Cho/Cr increase may provide additional diagnostic value. LL/Cr ratio in distal normal signal intensity area could be used as radiation/chemotherapy effectiveness criteria, as this will reduce after the received treatment and in remission period.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Evaluation of Brain Glioma Extent
Anvita Bieza, , Gaida Krumina, , Daina Apskalne, Oskars Rasnacs
Acta Chirurgica Latviensis , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10163-012-0009-5
Abstract: Introduction. Based on the long observations, gliomas recur predominantly within 1 centimeter of the resection margin. This is mainly due to the fact that at the time of surgical removal, cells from the core of the tumor have already invaded the peritumoral area that appears unchanged on structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR spectroscopy provides a noninvasive assessment of tumor metabolism with which the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lactate and lipid (LL), myo-inositol (MI) can be determined. Aim of the study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurometabolites ratios as an indicator of the glial brain tumors infiltration into the surrounding tissue. Materials and methods. MR spectroscopy was performed in 54 patients with histologically confirmed brain glioma. Patients were divided into two groups based on the time of MR examination performed: before and after therapy. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the tumor centre, the perifocal edema zone, the distant and contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Mean ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, LL/Cr were calculated in each ROIs. Results. In the both groups the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly elevated in the tumor and the edema zone; the NAA/Cr ratios were significantly reduced in the tumor; the LL/Cr ratios were significantly elevated in the tumor and the edema compared with the contralateral hemisphere. In the second group the Cho/Cr and LL/Cr ratios in the edema zone was significantly lower than in the tumor and significantly higher than in the distant white matter; the Cho/Cr, MI/Cr and LL/Cr ratios in the tumor were significantly higher than in the distant white matter. Conclusions. The analysis of spatial distribution of metabolites ratios by MR spectroscopy helps to discriminate among tumor and normal tissues, offering information not available with structural MR. LL/Cr ratios may have the superior implications in the detecting of glial tumors extent. Metabolic changes in the peritumoral area demonstrated by MR spectroscopy can assist in choosing a biopsy target for brain gliomas and in planning of surgical removal or radiation therapy.
Selected Topics Of Dermatophysics
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1995,
Effects of Altered Maternal Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Placental Global DNA Methylation Patterns in Wistar Rats
Asmita Kulkarni,Kamini Dangat,Anvita Kale,Pratiksha Sable,Preeti Chavan-Gautam,Sadhana Joshi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017706
Abstract: Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.
Social determinants of health—Street children at crossroads  [PDF]
Anjali Gupta
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49100
Abstract: 1The term “street children” has been used inter changeably with “children in especially difficult circumstances” in the remaining document. This paper discusses the findings of a research project which is an exploratory cum descriptive study [1] that aims to describe and examine the state and nature of the quality of life of street children accommodated at an unorganised colony in the city of Delhi. It provides a social profile of children and their families, and exploring the needs and aspirations of these children living in especially difficult circumstances. A non-probability sample of 100 street children in the age group of 5-16 years was randomly selected guided by their availability. An interview schedule was constructed and administered to gather data. The statistical analyses comprised frequencies and percentages on all the sections of the interview schedule. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data from open-ended questions and observations. Case studies were supportive in giving an insight into the lives of children living in especially difficult circumstances. Findings suggest that the quality of life of the participants in this study was depressed due to a lack of access or substandard educational and medical facilities, or absence of emotional support from their poverty stricken families. The existing limited programmes by the government or the civil society for the welfare of street children are lacking in their focus and do not include the voices and needs of the beneficiaries. Although service providers expressed sympathy for street children, many regarded them as deviants, delinquents, future criminals, and a public nuisance. Based on the findings, it has been suggested that the street child phenomenon necessitates a partnership between governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide for policy and legislation, funding and resources to translate programs into concrete plans of action. It has further been argued that such an approach should extend to children using their resourcefulness and creativity, and show that they can be significant in development interventions. Children illustrate both the need for participatory approaches and the problems that arise when perceptions of participants conflict with those of experts.
Ectopic Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)—An Extremely Rare Radiological Finding  [PDF]
Manish Gupta
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.41015

ADPKD is an inherited systemic disorder that predominantly affects the kidney, but may affect other organs including liver, pancreas, brain, and arterial blood vessel. APKPD occurs worldwide affecting about 1 in 500 - 1000 people. Hypertension is the most common manifestation of ADPKD and the major contributor to renal disease progression. A definite diagnosis of ADPKD relies on image testing. Renal ultrasound is commonly used because of its cost effectiveness.

A Rare Case of Acute Cerebrovascular Accident in the Post-Partum Period after Primary Angioplasty during Pregnancy  [PDF]
Ruchi Gupta
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.612118
Abstract: Pregnancy-related acute myocardial infarction is rare, but a serious event. We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in a 33-year-old female with 5 months of pregnancy. Angiography, under abdominal shield, revealed 100% thrombotic occlusion in the left anterior descending artery, which was treated successfully with a stent implantation. The patient was found to have hyperhomocysteinemia within the first week of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Rest of the follow-up was uneventful with delivery of a healthy baby by elective caesarean section at about 36 weeks of gestation. Within 7 days of post-partum period, the patient displayed signs of cerebrovascular infarction and was managed successfully. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary PCI during pregnancy and cerebrovascular event in the postpartum period has not been reported previously.
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