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Entamoeba Shows Reversible Variation in Ploidy under Different Growth Conditions and between Life Cycle Phases
Chandrama Mukherjee,C. Graham Clark,Anuradha Lohia
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000281
Abstract: Under axenic growth conditions, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica contain heterogenous amounts of DNA due to the presence of both multiple nuclei and different amounts of DNA in individual nuclei. In order to establish if the DNA content and the observed heterogeneity is maintained during different growth conditions, we have compared E. histolytica cells growing in xenic and axenic cultures. Our results show that the nuclear DNA content of E. histolytica trophozoites growing in axenic cultures is at least 10 fold higher than in xenic cultures. Re-association of axenic cultures with their bacterial flora led to a reduction of DNA content to the original xenic values. Thus switching between xenic and axenic growth conditions was accompanied by significant changes in the nuclear DNA content of this parasite. Changes in DNA content during encystation-excystation were studied in the related reptilian parasite E. invadens. During excystation of E. invadens cysts, it was observed that the nuclear DNA content increased approximately 40 fold following emergence of trophozoites in axenic cultures. Based on the observed large changes in nuclear size and DNA content, and the minor differences in relative abundance of representative protein coding sequences, rDNA and tRNA sequences, it appears that gain or loss of whole genome copies may be occurring during changes in the growth conditions. Our studies demonstrate the inherent plasticity and dynamic nature of the Entamoeba genome in at least two species.
Inter-Cellular Variation in DNA Content of Entamoeba histolytica Originates from Temporal and Spatial Uncoupling of Cytokinesis from the Nuclear Cycle
Chandrama Mukherjee equal contributor,Shubhra Majumder equal contributor,Anuradha Lohia
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000409
Abstract: Accumulation of multiple copies of the genome in a single nucleus and several nuclei in a single cell has previously been noted in Entamoeba histolytica, contributing to the genetic heterogeneity of this unicellular eukaryote. In this study, we demonstrate that this genetic heterogeneity is an inherent feature of the cell cycle of this organism. Chromosome segregation occurs on a variety of novel microtubular assemblies including multi-polar spindles. Cytokinesis in E. histolytica is completed by the mechanical severing of a thin cytoplasmic bridge, either independently or with the help of neighboring cells. Importantly, cytokinesis is uncoupled from the nuclear division cycle, both temporally and spatially, leading to the formation of unequal daughter cells. Sorting of euploid and polyploid cells showed that each of these sub-populations acquired heterogeneous DNA content upon further growth. Our study conclusively demonstrates that genetic heterogeneity originates from the unique mode of cell division events in this protist.
Identification and characterization of peptide: N- glycanase from Dictyostelium discoideum
Anuradha Gosain, Rakhee Lohia, Anju Shrivastava, Shweta Saran
BMC Biochemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-13-9
Abstract: In this study, the PNGase from the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum (DdPNGase) was identified based on the presence of a common TG (transglutaminase) core domain and its sequence homology with the known PNGases. The domain architecture and the sequence comparison validated the presence of probable functional domains in DdPNGase. The tertiary structure matched with the mouse PNGase. Here we show that DdPNGase is an essential protein, required for aggregation during multicellular development and a knockout strain of it results in small sized aggregates, all of which did not form fruiting bodies. The in situ hybridization and RT-PCR results show higher level of expression during the aggregate stage. The expression gets restricted to the prestalk region during later developmental stages. DdPNGase is a functional peptide:N-glycanase enzyme possessing deglycosylation activity, but does not possess any significant transamidation activity.We have identified and characterized a novel PNGase from D. discoideum and confirmed its deglycosylation activity. The results emphasize the importance of PNGase in aggregation during multicellular development of this organism.
Gravity Balls
Daksh Lohia
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: The existence of non trivial, non topological solutions in a class of induced, effective gravity models arising out of a non minimally coupled scalar field is established. We shall call such solutions ``Gravity Balls'' as the effective gravitational constant inside the soliton differs from its effective value outside.
Non - Topological Solitons in non-minimally coupled Scalar fields: Theory and consequences
Daksh Lohia
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: In theories of gravitation in which dimensional parameters are dynamically induced, one can have non - topological - soliton solutions. This article reviews related topics connected with such solutions. The existence of such solutions in curved spacetime can give rise to halos of gravity (g-) balls with gravitational ``constant" having different values inside and outside the ball. Such g - balls can have quite interesting bearing on the dark matter problem over galactic and cluster scales. We describe the origin of such solutions. We speculate on related problems in Cosmology. Such objects would naturally occur in a large class of induced gravity models in which we have scalar fields non minimally coupled to the scalar curvature.
An Unusual Case of Bilateral Vitreous Haemorrhage following Snake Bite
Vipul Bhandari,Meenal Lohia
Case Reports in Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/640582
Abstract: A-45-year-old man presented to us with diminution of vision in both eye following snake bite. On examination vision in the right eye (RE) was 6/36 and vision in left eye (LE) was hand movement positive and fundus examination revealed a subhyloid haemorrhage, left eye showed vitreous haemorrhage. Patient was advised bed rest, vitamin C tablets and oral steroids. 1. Introduction Snake bites are common in tropics, increasing during the summer and rainy seasons. Complications are local or systemic. Common systemic problems can be neurologic or haematological. Ocular disturbances are rare, except for injury to the cornea or conjunctiva directly exposed to the venom [1]. In this case report, we present a rarely reported ocular complication of snakebite. 2. Case History A 45-year-old man reported to our outpatient department with complaints of diminution of vision in both eyes, left eye (LE) more than right eye (RE) since 20 days, following snake bite. He was bitten by a snake while working in farm 1 month back. Type of snake was not known. He experienced severe burning pain at the bite site in left leg, he was treated with antivenom, details of which are not known to patient. Later he was diagnosed with coagulopathy and acute renal failure. Metabolic acidosis was acidemia caused due to metabolic reasons and this was found to be less than 22?mmol/L of on the arterial blood gas study. The number of leukocytes increased to over 10,000?mm [2] in the whole blood because of an inflammatory response. Serum creatine kinase level was over 1,000?IU/L and myoglobin level over 110?ng/mL due to rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure as the level of serum creatinine was over 1.3?mg/dL without a history of chronic renal disorder. Hemolysis that destroyed erythrocytes inside the blood was diagnosed as the serum haptoglobin level was less than 40?mg/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bleed in left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis with bleed in both lateral ventricles. The time period between intra cranial bleed and vitreous haemorrhage was about 14 days. On ocular examination vision in the RE was 6/36 not improving and in the LE hand movement positive close to face. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed pupil was 6?mm dilated, not reacting to light with iris atrophic patches and blue dot cataract (Figure 1), in the LE pupil was 4?mm dilated, not reacting to light with blue dot cataract (Figure 2). There were bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, anisocoria may be attributed to cranial nerve involvement. Intraocular pressure was 20?mmHg in the RE and 16?mmHg in the LE. On
FEV1/FEV6: A Reliable, Easy-to-Use, and Cheaper Alternative to FEV1/FVC in Diagnosing Airway Obstruction in Indian Population
Anupam Kumar Singh,Amit Lohia
ISRN Pulmonology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/109295
Abstract: Background. FEV1/FEV6 has been proposed as a cheap, reproducible and valid alternative to FEV1/FVC in spirometry. No Indian data exists on its utility to diagnose airway obstruction. Aim. we sought to determine a fixed cut off of FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose obstruction corresponding to FEV1/FVC < 0.70 proposed by GOLD guidelines. Method. Spirometry was done on patient referred to a tertiary centre in India. Age, sex, height weight were recorded in addition to spirometric variables like FEV1, FVC, FEV6. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FEV1/FEV6 were determined with respect to gold standard of FEV1/FVC < 0.70. Results. 467 spirometries were analysed after meeting the ATS acceptability criteria. Considering FEV1/FVC < 0.7 as being the gold standard for obstruction, ROC curve was used to determine the best corresponding cut-off for FEV1/FEV6. The area under the curve was 99.3% (95% CI: 98.1–99.8%), and the FEV1/FEV6 cut-off, corresponding to the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity, was 73%. For the total population, the FEV1/FEV6 sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV were was 95.7 %, 94.2 %, 87.5 % and 97.9 % respectively. Agreement by Kappa value between two cut offs was excellent 0.89 (0.87–0.91). Conclusion. FEV1/FEV6 < 73% is a new reliable spirometry index to diagnose airway obstruction in Indian population. 1. Introduction Undiagnosed airway obstruction is prevalent in smokers and occupational settings, leading to significant morbidity and adverse prognosis [1]. Many studies underline the importance of spirometry in primary care, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD in all patients greater than forty years of age who are currently smoking as well as those with respiratory symptoms [2–5]. Forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) [6] has been proposed as a convenient alternative for forced vital capacity (FVC) [7–10]. The advantages of FEV6 described in the literature are easy execution (for patients and technicians) [11], reduction in the total duration of the spirometry test, and reduction in spirometry complications (such as syncope) [12, 13]. Studies show that the criteria adopted to define obstruction from the FEV1/FEV6 ratio are quite variable like LLN derived from reference equations [10–16] ROC curve analysis to find the best cutoff point [17, 18], and an empiric fixed FEV1/FEV6 ratio of 0.70 [19]. In developing countries due to lack of trained technicians in primary care who can effectively perform FVC with costly spirometers, FEV6 promises to be a cheap, effective measure to use
Mesolamellar composite of TiN and CTAB using fluoride ion bridge: synthesis, mechanism & characterization  [PDF]
Tumbavanam Venkateswaran Anuradha
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.25057
Abstract: In an attempt to synthesize hexagonal mesopo- rous titanium nitride, a mesolamellar composite based on titanium nitride and cetyltrimethylam- monium bromide (CTAB) is obtained by the sol-gel route involving templating at 80oC. The mechanism underlying the above synthesis is discussed for the first time in the literature and till date there are no reports on the synthesis of mesoporous nitrides. The above mesolamellar composite is found to form an oxide of titania (anatase) upon heat treatment at 335oC for 1h.
Synthesis, Kinetics and Mechanism of Terpolymerization of Styrene, Vinyl Acetate with Acrylonitrile Initiated by P-Nitrobenzyl Triphenyl Phosphonium Ylide  [PDF]
Kiran Prajapati, Anuradha Varshney
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.12010
Abstract: Synthesis of terpolymers consisting of two electron-donating monomers, viz. styrene and vinyl acetate with one electron-accepting monomer, i.e. acrylonitrile, initiated by p-nitrobenzyl triphenyl phosphonim ylide in dioxane as diluent at 65°C for 150 min has been studied. The kinetic expression is Rpα[I]0.8[Sty] 1.2[VA] 1.4 [AN]1.2. The terpolymer composition was determined by the Kelen-Tüdos method. The values of reactivity ratios using r1 (Sty + VA) = 0.1 and r2 (AN) = 0.005. The overall activation energy is 46 kJ●mol●L–1. The formation of terpolymer is confirmed by the FTIR spectra showing bands at 3030 cm–1, 1598 cm–1, and 2362 cm–1, confirming the presence of phenyl, acetoxy and nitrile group respectively. The terpolymer has been characterized by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The Differential Scanning Calorimetric curve shows the Tg of the polymer as 149.5°C. A scanning electron microscope confirms the polymer to be phosphorus free. Electron.Spin.Resonance spectra confirms phenyl radical responsible for initiation.
Change in Mass of Spinning Black Holes w.r.t. the Angular Momentum  [PDF]
Dipo Mahto, Anuradha Kumari
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.95065
Abstract: Mahto et al. have shown δS≥0 and M2=a*J by using the first law of the black hole mechanics in the vacuum and Einstein mass-energy equivalence relation specially for spinning black holes. In the present paper, this work is extended to propose a model for the change in mass of the spinning black holes due to corresponding change in the angular momentum for maximum & half spin parameter of black holes (a* = 1 & 1/2) and calculated their values for different test black holes in XRBs and AGN. We have also shown that the change in mass of the spinning black holes due to corresponding change in the angular momentum for maximum spinning rate of black holes (a* = 1) is double to that of the spinning black holes having spinning parameter (a* = 1/2).
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