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OALib Journal期刊

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匹配条件: “Anura Widana” ,找到相关结果约36条。
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Gender in Road Construction: Experience in the Papua New Guinea Highlands  [PDF]
Anura Widana
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105031
Abstract:
This article presents experiences in engaging women in road construction work in Papua New Guinea (PNG) Highlands. Providing labour for road construction is a new experience and a demand for tribal women in the highlands region. Women have never before worked on paid road con-struction works. However, similar to men, women also need cash to pay for goods purchased for the household. Although several road construction activities are in progress in a number of Pacific countries including PNG, there is less evidence reported on the engagement of women. This article initially begins a discussion on gender role in a patriarchy society and gender engagement in road construction program. The article highlights the need for and the process of getting women engaged in road construction works. Women engagement in road construction has been zero in the early years of road construction program which has been increased to 13% of the work force in late 2017. This massive increase is attributable to various strategies adopted by the project staff. The women’s new role in road construction, benefits accrued to both men and women and, recommendation to increase women participation in road construction is discussed. The paper is based mainly on the extensive knowledge gained by the author in working on road construction projects in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Highlands. Where possible, the findings are supported by previous research.
Cost-effectiveness implications of GP intervention to promote physical activity: evidence from Perth, Australia
Anura K Amarasinghe
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-8-10
Abstract: The percentage of population that could potentially move from insufficiently active to sufficiently active, on GP advice was drawn from the Western Australian (WA) Premier's Physical Activity Taskforce (PATF) survey in 2006. Population impact fractions (PIF) for diseases attributable to physical inactivity together with disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and health care expenditure were used to estimate the net cost of intervention for varying subsidies. Cost-effectiveness of subsidy programs were evaluated in terms of cost per DALY saved at different compliance rates.With a 50% adherence to GP advice, an annual health care cost of AU$ 24 million could be potentially saved to the WA economy. A DALY can be saved at a cost of AU $ 11,000 with a AU$ 25 subsidy at a 50% compliance rate. Cost effectiveness of such a subsidy program decreases at higher subsidy and lower compliance rates.Implementing a subsidy for GP advice could potentially reduce the burden of physical inactivity. However, the cost-effectiveness of a subsidy program for GP advice depends on the percentage of population who comply with GP advice.The World Health Organisation (WHO) identified physical inactivity as a major risk factor contributing to diseases such as ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, breast cancer, colon/rectum cancer and diabetes mellitus [1]. It was estimated that, in Australia, physical inactivity contributes to 13,500 annual deaths and incurs an annual cost of AU$ 21 billion to the health care system [2,3]. The cost of physical inactivity to the Western Australian (WA) economy was estimated to be about AU $ 2.1 billion [2]. Increasing physical activity could potentially save at least 6.6% of total burden of diseases and injury in Australia [3]. In the UK, physical inactivity is directly responsible for 3% of disability adjusted life years lost and £1.06 billion direct health care cost to the National Health Service [4]. About CA$ 2.1 billion, or 2.5% of total direct health c
Speed-up via Quantum Sampling
Pawel Wocjan,Anura Abeyesinghe
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.042336
Abstract: The Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is at the heart of efficient approximation schemes for a wide range of problems in combinatorial enumeration and statistical physics. It is therefore very natural and important to determine whether quantum computers can speed-up classical mixing processes based on Markov chains. To this end, we present a new quantum algorithm, making it possible to prepare a quantum sample, i.e., a coherent version of the stationary distribution of a reversible Markov chain. Our algorithm has a significantly better running time than that of a previous algorithm based on adiabatic state generation. We also show that our methods provide a speed-up over a recently proposed method for obtaining ground states of (classical) Hamiltonians.
Generalized remote state preparation: Trading cbits, qubits and ebits in quantum communication
Anura Abeyesinghe,Patrick Hayden
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.062319
Abstract: We consider the problem of communicating quantum states by simultaneously making use of a noiseless classical channel, a noiseless quantum channel and shared entanglement. We specifically study the version of the problem in which the sender is given knowledge of the state to be communicated. In this setting, a trade-off arises between the three resources, some portions of which have been investigated previously in the contexts of the quantum-classical trade-off in data compression, remote state preparation and superdense coding of quantum states, each of which amounts to allowing just two out of these three resources. We present a formula for the triple resource trade-off that reduces its calculation to evaluating the data compression trade-off formula. In the process, we also construct protocols achieving all the optimal points. These turn out to be achievable by trade-off coding and suitable time-sharing between optimal protocols for cases involving two resources out of the three mentioned above.
Individual, Social, Economic, and Environmental Model: A Paradigm Shift for Obesity Prevention
Anura Amarasinghe,Gerard D'Souza
ISRN Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/571803
Abstract:
Individual, Social, Economic, and Environmental Model: A Paradigm Shift for Obesity Prevention
Anura Amarasinghe,Gerard D'Souza
ISRN Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/571803
Abstract: Obesity has joined the list of “wicked problems” with associated implications for public health, food security, and the entire food supply chain. This paper examines the possible causes, consequences, and policy implications, especially important in an environment of shrinking budgets. The causes of obesity are multifaceted and involve complex interactions; hence any successful prevention and mitigation strategy should identify the key factors and interactions thereof. We propose a dynamic and integrated individual, social, economic and environmental model (ISEEM) to accomplish this. Within this framework, the optimal mix of economic incentives, better education, and land use planning emerge as key factors in obesity prevention and mitigation and the promotion of healthier, more sustainable communities. The use of the ISEEM framework, involving a combination of strategies targeted to specific circumstances of individual communities and localities, could address this wicked problem in an environment characterized by increasing conflicts among budgets, heuristics, and politics. 1. Introduction Despite decades of research, policy makers are still debating the causes, consequences, and much needed policy interventions to combat obesity. Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions especially in the developed and, more recently, in the developing world, where the problem is compounded by a myriad of socioeconomic, demographic, built, and natural environmental factors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) over one billion adults around the globe are overweight and about 700 million of those are considered to be obese [1]. In the United States about 64% of adults aged 20–74 are overweight and 30% of those are estimated to be obese [2, 3]. Obesity, defined in terms of body mass index (BMI), is a function of both height and weight. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) US guidelines, adults having a BMI ≥ 30?(kg/m2) are considered obese, and those with a BMI 25–29.9?(kg/m2) are considered to be overweight. For children, a BMI at or above the 95th percentile, depending on age and sex-specific growth charts, is considered to be obese [4]. Overweight and obesity increase the risk of having other diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer [5, 6]. Health care expenditures of obesity in the USA are reported to be in the range of $11–14 billion for children and youth and $ 75–90 billion for adults [7]. The increased burden has led to an intense debate to call for significant policy initiatives to prevent obesity [8, 9]. While
EFFORTS PERFORMED BY HOTELS IN BALI IN LOOKING AFTER THE ENVIRONMENT
A.A.G. Raka Dalem,I.N. Widana,I.N. Simpen,I.N. Artawan
Bumi Lestari , 2010,
Abstract: A study on a€ Efforts perpormed by hotels in Bali in looking after the environmenta€ was undertaken in 2009, by utilising data from July, 2008 until June, 2009. Objectives of the study was for collecting data on any efforts undertaken by hotels in looking after the environment especially related to minimising water consumption, garbage handling, the use of chemicals (especially cleaning chemicals), minimising energy consumption and ecosystem conservation (measured from the proportion of natural vegetation). Data were collected from interviews, document checkings and distributing questionaires. Results of the study showed that in average water consumption of hotels in Bali was 115 litres / guest night. It was considered low, less than the benchmark of Green Globe/Earthcheck which was 1,300 litres / guest night. The average of energy consumption was 0.322 MJ per guest night, which was still much below the baseline levels / standard of 340 MJ / guest night. In average garbage/waste produced by hotels was 0.0309 litre/guest night. This was also much below the baseline of 6 litres / guest night. The use of biodegradable cleaning chemicals in the hotel was averaged 35% which should be a minimum of 50%. There were 22% only of hotels which used cleaning chemicals that were biodegradable over 50% (over the standard). In average the proportion of natural vegetation in a hotel was 29%. There were 43% of sampled hotels of which their natural vegetation was over the baseline of 33%. Thus, hotels in Bali should improved their performance in looking after the environment, especially dealing with cleaning chemicals and ecosystem conservation. In this regards, they should increase the proportion of the use of biodegradable cleaning chemicals and increase the proportion of land kept with their natural vegetation.
An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial
Rebecca Kuriyan, Divya R Kumar, Rajendran R, Anura V Kurpad
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-27
Abstract: The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90.While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group.It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect.REFCTRI2009000472In India, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are emerging as major causes of death [1]. Hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, glucose tolerance, obesity and physical activity are some of the major modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease. The non-pharmacological treatment for hypercholesterolemia includes dietary modification, weight loss or control, aerobic exercise, reduced alcohol consumption and cessation of smoking. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables and legumes and low in saturated fat along with regular exercise is the standard prescription for individuals with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, some herbs have been thought to help reduce hyperlipidemia, abnormal tendency to form blood clots, impaired blood flow or other cardiovascular problems [2]. Herbal medicine is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illness [2]. Herbs refer to not only the herb
Diets Enriched in Fish-Oil or Seal-Oil have Distinct Effects on Lipid Levels and Peroxidation in BioF1B Hamsters
Pratibha Dubey, Anura P. Jayasooriya and Sukhinder K. Cheema
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S6728
Abstract: Aim: Fish-oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are mostly esterified to the sn-2 position of triglycerides, while in seal-oil triglycerides, these are mostly esterified to the sn-1 and -3 positions. We investigated whether fish-oil and seal-oil feeding has a different effect on the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in BioF1B hamsters. Methods: BioF1B hamsters were fed high fat diets rich in fish-oil or seal-oil for 4 weeks, and fasted for 14 hours prior to blood and tissue collection. Results: Plasma and hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly lower in seal-oil-fed hamsters as compared to those fed fish-oil. There was a selective hindrance of clearance of lipids in fish-oil-fed hamsters as reflected by higher levels of plasma apoB48. Conclusion: Differences in the fatty acid composition and positional distribution of n-3 PUFAs in triglycerides of fish-oil and seal-oil are suggested to trigger metabolic differences.
Nutritional status predicts outcome in patients hospitalised with exacerbation of COPD
Mathew Jayant,Veena G,Kurpad Anura,D′Souza George
Lung India , 2006,
Abstract: Nutritional status affects outcome in acute illnesses. Weight loss is associated with poor lung functions and outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). There is not much data on the effects of nutritional status on hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. This study was conducted to address this issue. Twenty five patients with COPD admitted with acute exacerbation in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India were studied. Lung functions were as-sessed by spirometry. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric mea-sures {body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF) and fat free mass (FFM)}. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Hospital outcome was determined by mortal-ity, number of days to improve subjectively and number of days to discharge. Patients with a lower BMI, MAC and TSF took a longer time to recover. REE was found to be lower in patients with weight loss unlike the Western patients. On multivariate analysis, only a lower BMI was associated with a longer time to re-covery. Thus, nutritional status is an important predictor of hospital outcome in patients with COPD.
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