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Herpetofaunal assemblage with special emphasis on community structure and spatiality in amphibians of Cauvery delta region, Tamil Nadu
Anukul Nath,Sanjoy Sutradhar,A. Kalai Mani,Vishnu Vijyan
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: We studied the amphibian community structure, spatial overlap and herpetofaunal assemblage at Mannampandal, Tamil Nadu during October, 2010 to January, 2011. The survey methods involved careful visual estimation of amphibians in all the possible microhabitats present in the study area. Five different microhabitat categories were selected, viz., leaf litters, temporary water pools, tree holes, shrubs & grasses (ground vegetation), pathways, open floor & outer edges of buildings. We identified 26 species of reptiles and 14 species of amphibians. There was a significant difference found among the amphibian species occupying in different microhabitats. Species diversity was calculated, Shanon-Wiener H'= 1.55. The high niche overlap was found between Duttaphrynus scaber and Uperodon systoma followed by Fejervarya sp. and Sphaerotheca breviceps. The present study on amphibian community is just a representation to show the microhabitat occupancy and adjustment by the amphibians in human settlements and competition among them as, spatial resource partitioning.
Salter-Harris II injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis with both vascular compromise and compartment syndrome: a case report
Nicholas D Clement, Anukul Goswami
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-4-23
Abstract: Salter-Harris injuries of the proximal tibia are rare, with an incidence of 0.5 to 3% of all epiphyseal injuries[1,2]. This rarity is due to the anatomy of the proximal epiphysis; the collateral ligaments insert distally into the metaphysis shielding the epiphysis. There have been limited reports of these injuries to date, with the largest published series reporting 39 cases [3]. This injury is potentially limb threatening, secondary to vascular compromise or compartment syndrome [4].We report a posteriorly displaced Salter-Harris II injury to the proximal tibia associated with both vascular compromise and compartment syndrome.A 14-year-old girl presented to our accident and emergency department after sustaining a direct blow from a fence post to the anterior aspect of her proximal tibia whilst riding her horse at approximately 15 km/hr. She then fell to the ground, forcing the knee into valgus. She was unable to weight bear because of pain localised to the knee.On examination her right knee was deformed, with a step inferior to the joint margin. The leg was also externally rotated by 20 degrees. There was marked tenderness over the proximal tibia. The calf was soft and non-tender; peripheral pulses and neurology were intact.Radiographs revealed a Salter-Harris II injury, with a lateral metaphyseal extension and posterior displacement of the tibia (Figure 1). She was then taken to theatre within 5 hours of presentation, however at this time she complained of "pins and needles" over the dorsum of her foot. The pulses were re-examined, and found to be absent. Under general anaesthetic the fracture was reduced. This was achieved with forward traction over the proximal tibia distal to the epiphysis, with the knee flexed to 100 degrees. On reduction the peripheral pulses returned but remained weak. The fracture remained unstable and continued to fall back to its original position with loss of pulses on release of traction. Reduction was held with four Kirschner (K-) wire
Global Climate Change and Emerging Environmental and Strategic Security Issues for South Asia  [PDF]
Amarendra Nath Sarkar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29135
Abstract: Global climate change-essentially an adverse consequence of global warming, is principally caused by progressive build-up and extensive spread of greenhouse gases (GHGs) across countries, regions or continents because of earth’s rotational movement. The potent sources of GHGs are fossil-fuels and biomass. With the increasing pace of globalization, industrialization and rapid change of life-style the demand and consumption of these feed-stocks to stimulate economic growth is steadily rising-both in the developing and developed economy. In the process, the emissions level is also rising phenomenally; and of late become quite alarming-more in the former than latter case, affecting thereby the environmental quality as also its security concerns globally. This paper highlights the major impacts of global warming and consequential climate change on the environmental quality and overall security aspects-including commercial, strategic and defense angles for the South-Asian region. The paper also discusses some relevant aspects linking the larger question of energy security with environmental security through the approach of sustainable energy development for envisioning a balanced economic development as well as growth perspective for South Asia. The significance of International cooperation in the mitigation and adaptation of climate change impacts with special reference to Asia- Pacific and South Asian region is also discussed at some length in the paper.
Effect of Heat Extraction by Metal Lines and Two Sided Cooling on Temperatures in Organic Light Emitting Diode Based Devices  [PDF]
Deepak ., Gokaran Nath Shukla
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2011.13004
Abstract: Only a 10 K rise in temperature of organic light emitting diode (OLED) can lower its lifetime by more than 50% and cause other performance deterioration. We have performed two dimensional heat transport analysis and calculated temperatures in an OLED panel. The panel temperatures can easily rise in excess of 10 K. Further we have investigated loss of heat through the metal lines for the extent by which they could lower the temperature. However, this method leads to gradients in temperature which could in turn cause inhomogeneities in a display. But, in lighting panels, it will be feasible to cool the devices from both the sides, which is shown to have a significant impact. The thermal transport model presented here for displays is more extensive in its approach and hence likely to provide more accurate results.
Investigation of Probability Generating Function in an Interdependent M/M/1:(∞; GD) Queueing Model with Controllable Arrival Rates Using Rouche’s Theorem  [PDF]
Vishwa Nath Maurya
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2012.12006
Abstract: Present paper deals a M/M/1:(∞; GD) queueing model with interdependent controllable arrival and service rates where- in customers arrive in the system according to poisson distribution with two different arrivals rates-slower and faster as per controllable arrival policy. Keeping in view the general trend of interdependent arrival and service processes, it is presumed that random variables of arrival and service processes follow a bivariate poisson distribution and the server provides his services under general discipline of service rule in an infinitely large waiting space. In this paper, our central attention is to explore the probability generating functions using Rouche’s theorem in both cases of slower and faster arrival rates of the queueing model taken into consideration; which may be helpful for mathematicians and researchers for establishing significant performance measures of the model. Moreover, for the purpose of high-lighting the application aspect of our investigated result, very recently Maurya [1] has derived successfully the expected busy periods of the server in both cases of slower and faster arrival rates, which have also been presented by the end of this paper.

 

Study Chromaticity of Solar Spectrum  [PDF]
Nagendra Nath Mondal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.43047
Abstract: The chromaticity of solar spectrum is studied with the help of a Solar Spectrum Monitor system that can detect individual color in the spectrum. Recent observations done by the detector on the Solar Radiation and the Erath Milieu Experiment suggest that the sun’s visible spectral irradiance changes from May 2009 to September 2012. The data of Earth’s coordinates and environment have been taken since April 2005 after the devastating Tsunami (December, 2004) of India. The bizarre data of zenith angle, azimuth angle, and temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere show their changes of maxima and minima epoch to epoch. The data of solar spectrum monitor have been taking since 2009 and significant transformations of colored ratios ΔRB/W and ΔRR/W per hour are observed among the regions of each solstice between 2009 and 2012. The author advocates that the abrupt vagaries of the Earth’s movements may cause devastating tsunamis, earthquake, volcanic eruption, cyclones and tornadoes in addition of anomalous changes of solar spectral irradiation, humidity,
Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home)  [PDF]
Hom Nath Chalise
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.31002
Abstract:

Introduction: Depression is a common public health issue with the increasing life expectancy worldwide and depression is associated with morbidity as well as disability among the elderly. There are very few studies related with depression among elderly from developing countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and its correlates among the elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using short version of Geriatric Depression Scale. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, simple correlation and regression. Results: The subjects (N = 185) were elderly aged 60 years and above living in Devghat area, Nepal. Mean age of the subjects was 73.67 (±3.23) years old and 51% were male. 94% elderly belong to Khas ethnicity. Nearly one third (31%) elderly were from nuclear family back ground, 25% were married, and only 18% elderly were literate. Majority of the elderly (93%) had health problems and self reported health shows 86% elderly reported their health fair. This study shows mean functional disability score was 2.53 (±2.05). Finding shows the prevalence of depression was 57.8%. Among them 46.7% had mild, 8.9% had moderate and 2.2% had severe depression. A statistically significant correlation was found between feelings of depression and age, sex, previous family type, ethnicity, feeling of loneliness and instrumental activities of daily living. Regression analysis shows that being women, feeling of loneliness and higher the dependency in IADL were predictors of depression. Conclusion: This study indicates that many elderly living in the Briddashram are suffering from depression. There should be some interruption from the concerned authorities so that depression can be reduced which will support to the well-being and quality of life of elderly.

Discovered Solar Positronium  [PDF]
Nagendra Nath Mondal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44057
Abstract: I describe a method for the observation of Positronium (Ps) involvement in the solar radiation spectrum. In this method, Rydberg-Ritz’s principle and Planck’s radiation formula are used to acquire information of the atomic transitions of Ps alike Hydrogen and Helium. In order to perform this experiment, an advanced solar spectrum monitor is constructed by utilizing light emitting diodes (LED) of various colors. A detailed study on this method provides qualitative agreement with experimental data, giving insight to the physical process involved in the solar radiation spectrum and confirming the existence of solar Ps.
Advanced Steganography Algorithm using Encrypted secret message
Joyshree Nath,Asoke Nath
International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: In the present work the authors have introduced a new method for hiding any encrypted secret message inside a cover file. For encrypting secret message the authors have used new algorithm proposed by Nath et al(1). For hiding secret message we have used a method proposed by Nath et al(2). In MSA(1) method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can encrypt or decrypt any file. We have introduced a new randomization method for generating the randomized key matrix to encrypt plain text file and to decrypt cipher text file. We have also introduced a new algorithm for encrypting the plain text multiple times. Our method is totally dependent on the random text_key which is to be supplied by the user. The maximum length of the text_key can be of 16 characters long and it may contain any character(ASCII code 0 to 255). We have developed an algorithm to calculate the randomization number and the encryption number from the given text_key. The size of the encryption key matrix is 16x16 and the total number of matrices can be formed from 16 x 16 is 256! which is quite large and hence if someone applies the brute force method then he/she has to give trail for 256! times which is quite absurd. Moreover the multiple encryption method makes the system further secured. For hiding secret message in the cover file we have inserted the 8 bits of each character of encrypted message file in 8 consecutive bytes of the cover file. We have introduced password for hiding data in the cover file. We propose that our new method could be most appropriate for hiding any file in any standard cover file such as image, audio, video files. Because the hidden message is encrypted hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file. This method may be the most secured method in digital water marking.
A Modified Algorithm for Quantifying of Pre-mature MiRNAs using Some Fractal Parameters
Joyshree Nath , Asoke Nath
International Journal of Advanced Computer Research , 2012,
Abstract: The prime research area now is to understand microRNA (miRNA) in a quantitative manner. The miRNAs are non-coding short ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, approximately ~25 nucleotides long. MicroRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of diverse cellular processes with important roles in tissue remodeling. The scientists across the globe are working on quantitative estimation of microRNA (miRNA) from differentangles. The authors in their earlier paper have already made a new addition in the present scenario. In the present paper the authors are appending few more fractal parameters to strengthen the algorithm. In the previous work the authors deciphered the inherent statistical behavior in pre-mature miRNA strings through few statistical parameters namely: Hurst Exponent values, Variance, Poly-String Mean and Poly-String Standard Deviation. Now, in the present work the authors have to tried to explore the quantification of the same miRNA dataset based on fractal and statistical parameters namely: (i) Fractal Dimension (FD) of 4 binary indicator matrices, (ii) FD of the DNA walk and (iii) Complexity of the miRNA strings, of the three organisms Homo sapiens (hsa), Macaca mulatta (mml) and Pan troglodytes (ptr).
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