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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33290 matches for " Antonio Villar "
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Who Meets the Standrads: A Multidimensional Approach  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24069
Abstract: We consider here the evaluation of the performance of a society with respect to a given set of targets. We provide a characterization of an intuitive evaluation formula that consists of the mean of the shares of the achievements in the targets. The criterion so obtained permits one not only to endogenously determine who meets the standards and who does not, but also to quantify the degree of fulfilment. Two empirical illustrations are provided: the compliance of the European Union Stability and Growth Pact, on the one hand, and the evaluation of research excellence in the Spanish universities, on the other hand.
The Educational Development Index: A Multidimensional Approach to Educational Achievements through PISA  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.45042
Abstract:

This paper proposes a multidimensional index that summarizes three relevant aspects of the educational achievements, out of the data provided by the PISA Report, concerning reading abilities of 15-year-old students from 65 countries. The three aspects considered are: performance, equity, and quality. The Educational Development Index (EDI) is the geometric mean of the normalized values of those three variables. We analyse the distribution of the variables that approach those three aspects and the resulting index, relative to the corresponding means of the OECD countries.

Educational Poverty as a Welfare Loss: Low Performance in the OECD According to PISA 2012  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.74049
Abstract: This paper analyses the incidence and intensity of low performance among 15-year old students in the OECD countries according to PISA 2012. Taking level 2 of proficiency as the baseline competence, we approach the measurement of low performance by applying a multidimensional poverty measure that permits interpreting educational poverty as a welfare loss. We use a conventional welfare evaluation function to derive an index that combines the incidence, intensity and inequality of educational poverty. The results show that OECD countries differ in educational poverty much more than in PISA average scores and also that they present different mixes of incidence and intensity.
Cómo repartir cuando no hay bastante
Villar,Antonio;
Lecturas de Economía , 2005,
Abstract: decisions on allocation of scarce resources constitute one of the elements that define the nature of economy. these decisions related to the scarcity problem, appear in individual and social contexts and generate rationing problems which are faced by the modern economic analysis from two perspectives: the first one is given by the cooperative theory of the games and the second one is the axiomatic study of the various proposed solutions. the latter is used in this article with the purpose of finding solutions to bankruptcy situations, which are simple rationing problems with a remarkable variety of interpretations and a precise mathematical formulation. to accomplish this, we take into account a comparative analysis of four classic rules (proportional, equality, thalmud and equal loss) that enables finding a solution by means of applying different equality criteria. the election of one or another criterion shall depend, generally, on the specific type of problem.
Cómo repartir cuando no hay bastante
Antonio Villar
Lecturas de Economía , 2005,
Abstract: Las decisiones de asignación de recursos escasos constituyen uno de los elementos que definen la naturaleza de la Economía. Estas decisiones, asociadas al problema de la escasez, aparecen tanto en contextos individuales como sociales y generan problemas de racionamiento, los cuales han sido abordados por el análisis económico moderno desde dos enfoques: el primero, es proporcionado por la teoría cooperativa de los juegos y el segundo, es el estudio axiomático de las diversas soluciones propuestas. El último enfoque se emplea en este artículo con el objetivo de dar solución a situaciones de bancarrota, las cuales son un tipo de problemas de racionamiento sencillo con una notable variedad de interpretaciones y una formulación matemática precisa. Para esto, se aborda el análisis comparativo de cuatro reglas clásicas (regla proporcional, igualitaria, del Talmud y de igual pérdida) que permiten encontrar una solución aplicando diferentes criterios de equidad. La elección de uno u otro criterio dependerá, por lo general, del tipo concreto de problema de que se trate.
On the Wondrous Behaviour of Rats and Researchers  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/me.2020.111002
Abstract: This paper deals with the connection between effort and rewards, regarding the optimal behaviour of the agents involved. The context is that in which a subject is required to perform a costly task and is rewarded with a prize when the task is performed properly. We provide here a simple model that explains why reducing the reward associated with a costly task may induce a higher effort. This is an experimental observation of the behaviour of rats in the lab, but it also appears in other mammals (e.g. researchers).
On the Comparison of Group Performance with Categorical Data
Carmen Herrero, Antonio Villar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084784
Abstract: There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions) whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across categories. The starting point is that of dominance relations in pair-wise comparisons. We say that group i dominates group j when the expected category of a member of i is higher than the expected category of a member of j. We introduce the notion of relative advantage of a group to extend this principle to multi-group comparisons and show that there is a unique evaluation function that ranks all groups consistently in terms of this criterion. This function associates to each evaluation problem the (unique) dominant eigenvector of a matrix whose entries describe the dominance relations between groups in pair-wise comparisons. The working of the model is illustrated by means of three different applications.
La migración de la población hablante de lengua indígena en el sureste mexicano
López Villar, Darío Antonio
Población y Salud en Mesoamérica , 2005,
Abstract: Sin duda, México es un país de grandes contrastes geográficos, económicos, demográficos y culturales, en los que la diversidad étnica y el carácter pluricultural sobresalen entre el conjunto de características principales del país. En consecuencia, su situación demográfica exhibe una enorme heterogeneidad que se muestra especialmente cuando se trata de los grupos étnicos; así la realidad migratoria de este sector de la población, y en particular del establecido en la zona del Istmo, resulta menos intensa que las migraciones correspondientes a los sectores no pertenecientes a alguna etnia en específico. Dada la temática de la Tercera Conferencia Internacional de Población del Istmo Centroamericano, 2003, en este artículo se ha tomado como centro de interés a los estados de Campeche, Quintana Roo y Yucatán que conforma la zona económica de la península de Yucatán, y a los estados de Tabasco y Chiapas, y se usará la denominación región sureste del país para aludir al conglomerado de estos cinco estados. Por otra parte, a pesar de reconocer que el concepto indígena abarca muchos más elementos que simplemente hablar una lengua autóctona, durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizarán los términos indígenas, pueblos indígenas y grupos étnicos, para referir a la población que ha sido clasificada como tal, en consideración al criterio lingüístico. Este documento contiene una serie de reflexiones sobre los flujos migratorios de los diferentes grupos étnicos del sureste mexicano y de su influencia en la determinación del volumen de este grupo de población. El autor agradece el valioso apoyo de Martha Alicia Vidales García, a cuyo cargo estuvo la captura del documento y elaboración de cuadros y gráficas; así también al Dr. David P. Lindstrom* sin cuyos valiosos comentarios no hubiera sido posible este trabajo.
Study of Human Serum Albumin-SPIONs Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery  [PDF]
Sri Vidawati, Silvia Barbosa, Pablo Taboada, Eva Villar, Antonio Topete, Victor Mosquera
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2018.85008
Abstract: The Biodegradable nanoparticles from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively investigated for sustained and targeted/localized delivery of different agents. Many parameters are required in the synthesis of a biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle. We report the synthesis of human serum albumin (HSA)-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) loaded PLGA nanoparticles. All nanoparticles were characterized using a TEM image, UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements, Zeta Potential, and PPMS for magnetizations. This study described and investigated the interesting phenomenon in the synthesis development of HSA-SPIONs loaded PLGA nanoparticles. The result showed that the stability of HSA-SPIONs loaded PLGA nanoparticles for potential applications such as in protein delivery.
Descripción de una nueva combinación de técnicas para el desbridamiento de heridas crónicas
Villar Rojas,Antonio Erasto; Villar Hernández,álvaro Rafael; Díaz Mateos,María;
Gerokomos , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1134-928X2010000100007
Abstract: in this article we present the clinical evolution of a patient with a pressure ulcer, stage iv, in the area of the sacrum. we describe the utilization of a new guideline of debridement by means of the combination of dressing the dressing of hydrofiber technology with ionic silver (aquacel? ag) and solution of polihexanida betaina (prontosan?) in wound with high bacterial load and of extremely complex managing. by means of the guideline of debridement described we obtained a favourable evolution of the pressure ulcer, considering the clinical characteristics of the patient and ulcer we obtained an excellent result in a short period of time. we consider that the guideline of debridement described can be of great usefulness in those patients with high proportion of desvitalizated tissue, which is needed of a rapid and slightly aggressive debridement, as well as in those patients with cavity injuries and of difficult access for the professional.
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