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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221716 matches for " Antonio D'Avolio "
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Tuberculosis after gastrectomy, plasmatic concentration of antitubercular drugs
Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio,Antonio D'Avolio,Alessio Sgrelli,Lorena Baietto
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: We report pharmacokinetic data on two gastrectomized, patients affected by tuberculosis. Drugs plasmatic concentrations were measured after seven days of oral therapy by a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method and the area under the concentration-time-curve (AUC) over 24 hours (AUC0-24) was calculated. A sub-therapeutic level of isoniazid was found in a patient with total gastrectomy with a Cmax of 0,395 mgL and AUC0-24 level of 4.75 hr*mg/L. The level of the other antitubercular drugs was adequate. Measurement of drug level in gastrectomy patients with tuberculosis is warranted.
Marked increase in etravirine and saquinavir plasma concentrations during atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis
Chiara Tommasi, Rita Bellagamba, Massimo Tempestilli, Antonio D'Avolio, Anna L Gallo, Jelena Ivanovic, Emanuele Nicastri, Leopoldo P Pucillo, Pasquale Narciso
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-141
Abstract: Atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone?) is a fixed-dose combination of the anti-malarial agents atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. HIV-infected travellers in malaria endemic countries frequently use atovaquone/proguanil as a prophylaxis.Atovaquone displays linear pharmacokinetic with a mean absolute bioavailability of 23%. It is highly protein-bound (> 99%) but does not displace other highly protein-bound drugs in vitro [1]. The principal excretion route is the liver, with the 94% of the drug excreted unchanged in the faeces. The elimination half-life is 2-3 days in adults [1].Proguanil is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and achieves peak plasma concentrations in 2-4 hours, with an absolute bioavailability as high as 60% [1]. It is 75% protein bound, and this binding is unaffected by the presence of atovaquone and vice versa [1]. Proguanil is metabolized to cycloguanil (primarily trough CYP2C19) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide, with between 40% and 60% of proguanil excreted renally. The elimination half-life of proguanil is 12-21 hours [1].Drug interactions between atovaquone/proguanil and tetracycline, metoclopramide, rifampin, rifabutin and warfarin have been described. The concomitant administration of indinavir is associated with a 23% decrease in indinavir Cmin (90% CI 8-35%). Potential interactions between proguanil and other drugs that are CYP2C19 substrates or inhibitors are unknown [1].A 32-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome for multi-drug resistant HIV-1 subtype B infection (diagnosed in 1985), beta-thalassaemia, severe pulmonary hypertension, wasting syndrome and ritonavir allergy. In October 2007, a genotypic resistance test (GRT) revealed high-level resistance to all currently available anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and a salvage treatment with unboosted darunavir (600 mg bid), lamivudine (300 mg qd) and raltegravir (400 mg bid) was started. Three months later, a viral r
La emergencia del saber: Investigar en la dinámica de la interacción social
DAvolio Antón,Cristina Isabel;
Paradígma , 2011,
Abstract: the emergence of knowledge from the qualitative approach, is a book write by researchers of the centre for educational research paradigm (ciep), and is a required reference work for teachers and researchers that approach to qualitative research from the reflection of pedagogical practice. one of the most important aspects of this book is that each of its component research results from this qualitative inquiry, but made in our own contexts, building not only emerging academic knowledge but also revealing our own beliefs to pedagogical practice and to the same act of research, thus promoting, reflective processes that enable watching from our work to understand the other's action. the articles present in this work show a shift in focus from the object of study and research showing that, in the educational field is only possible in the interaction between the researcher and the researched within social dynamics.
Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters
Raffaella Alò, Ennio Avolio, Antonio Carelli, Rosa Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
BMC Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-10
Abstract: From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA) with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p < 0.001) drinking rhythms while moderately increased feeding (p < 0.05) responses during arousal with respect to moderately increased drinking levels in euthermics. Conversely, treatment with CNQX did not modify drinking rhythms and so animals spent more time executing exploratory behaviors. These same antagonists accounted for altered glutamatergic transcription activities as displayed by greatly reduced GluR1, NR1 and GluR2 levels in hippocampus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) and amygdala, respectively, plus a great (p < 0.01) up-regulation of GluR2 in VMN of hibernators.We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.The participation of the amygdala (AMY) in a growing number of neuroprotective functions is making this telencephalic limbic area a key site for many physiological activities such as hibernation. AMY is composed of spatially contiguous plus anatomically interconnected nuclei i.e. basolateral (BLA) and cortico-medial complexes [1]. It influences a number of emotional and mnemonic features, especially through extensive visceral (hypothalamus and olfactory lobes) and autonomic-somatomotor connections [2-4]. Interestingly, these connections seem to control the induction of rapid eye movement (REM) as well as the awaking state via the suppression of glutamate (Glu) excitatory signals [5,6]. At date, satiety states controlled by BLA
Defining high-detail hazard maps by a cellular automata approach: application to Mount Etna (Italy)
Rocco Rongo,Maria Vittoria Avolio,Boris Behncke,Donato D’Ambrosio
Annals of Geophysics , 2011, DOI: 10.4401/ag-5340
Abstract: The individuation of areas that are more likely to be affected by new events in volcanic regions is of fundamental relevance for the mitigation of the possible consequences, both in terms of loss of human life and material properties. Here, we describe a methodology for defining flexible high-detail lava-hazard maps and a technique for the validation of the results obtained. The methodology relies on: (i) an accurate analysis of the past behavior of the volcano; (ii) a new version of the SCIARA model for lava-flow simulation (based on the macroscopic cellular automata paradigm); and (iii) high-performance parallel computing for increasing computational efficiency. The new release of the SCIARA model introduces a Bingham-like rheology as part of the minimization algorithm of the differences for the determination of outflows from a generic cell, and an improved approach to lava cooling. The method is here applied to Mount Etna, the most active volcano in Europe, and applications to land-use planning and hazard mitigation are presented.
Mason & Dixon: narrazione, storia e verità
Carlo Avolio
Impossibilia : Revista Internacional de Estudios Literarios , 2012,
Abstract: This paper highlights the relationship between history and fiction in Thomas Pynchon'sMason & Dixon and their concern for truth, which appears to be “too innocent, to be left within thereach of anyone in Power”. From this point of view, fiction is a counter-narrative which – opposing thepower structures' version of history – can open new spaces for critical, political and creativeconsciousness. Furthermore, the opposition to the official discourse (to its single version of events) isanalogous in the novel to the critique of mapping and bounding the still unmapped and unboundedAmerican territories: in fact, the straight boundary line (symbolized by the Mason-Dixon Line) revealsitself as an ideological act of violence towards the primordial, complex wholeness of those sameterritories.
Social relationships and HRQL: A cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults
Antonio de Belvis, Maria Avolio, Lorella Sicuro, Aldo Rosano, Elide Latini, Gianfranco Damiani, Walter Ricciardi
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-348
Abstract: A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999–2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders.Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS.Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined in recent years.Social relationships are defined as social structures made up of contact bonds among individuals or groups of relatives, colleagues, friends and neighbours. These relationships are based upon reciprocal trust
Distinct α subunit variations of the hypothalamic GABAA receptor triplets (αβγ) are linked to hibernating state in hamsters
Raffaella Alò, Ennio Avolio, Anna Di Vito, Antonio Carelli, Rosa Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
BMC Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-11-111
Abstract: Both autoradiography and molecular analysis supplied distinct expression patterns of all α subunits considered as shown by a strong (p < 0.01) prevalence of α1 ratio (over total α subunits considered in the present study) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (Arc) of NHIBs with respect to HIBs. At the same time α2 subunit levels proved to be typical of periventricular nucleus (Pe) and Arc of HIB, while strong α4 expression levels were detected during awakening state in the key circadian hypothalamic station, i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus (Sch; 60%). Regarding the other two subunits (β and γ), elevated β3 and γ3 mRNAs levels mostly characterized MPOA of HIBs, while prevalently elevated expression concentrations of the same subunits were also typical of Sch, even though this time during the awakening state. In the case of Arc, notably elevated levels were obtained for β3 and γ2 during hibernating conditions.We conclude that different αβγ subunits are operating as major elements either at the onset of torpor or during induction of the arousal state in the Syrian golden hamster. The identification of a brain regional distribution pattern of distinct GABAAR subunit combinations may prove to be very useful for highlighting GABAergic mechanisms functioning at least during the different physiological states of hibernators and this may have interesting therapeutic bearings on neurological sleeping disorders.Hibernation is a unique physiological condition that permits animals to survive under extraordinary climatic and stressful conditions [1]. This condition has been largely studied on the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), a facultative hibernator (HIB) that displays profound decreases in oxidative metabolism and body temperature during bouts of prolonged torpor interrupted every 5 to 14 days by brief periodic arousals. In such an interval animals spontaneously re-warm to 37°C (euthermic state) for 24-48 hrs [2,3]. Consequently, entering and
Using the Electronic Medical Record to Identify Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Toward a Replicable Automated Strategy
Sylvain DeLisle, Bernard Kim, Janaki Deepak, Tariq Siddiqui, Adi Gundlapalli, Matthew Samore, Leonard D'Avolio
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070944
Abstract: Background Timely information about disease severity can be central to the detection and management of outbreaks of acute respiratory infections (ARI), including influenza. We asked if two resources: 1) free text, and 2) structured data from an electronic medical record (EMR) could complement each other to identify patients with pneumonia, an ARI severity landmark. Methods A manual EMR review of 2747 outpatient ARI visits with associated chest imaging identified x-ray reports that could support the diagnosis of pneumonia (kappa score = 0.88 (95% CI 0.82:0.93)), along with attendant cases with Possible Pneumonia (adds either cough, sputum, fever/chills/night sweats, dyspnea or pleuritic chest pain) or with Pneumonia-in-Plan (adds pneumonia stated as a likely diagnosis by the provider). The x-ray reports served as a reference to develop a text classifier using machine-learning software that did not require custom coding. To identify pneumonia cases, the classifier was combined with EMR-based structured data and with text analyses aimed at ARI symptoms in clinical notes. Results 370 reference cases with Possible Pneumonia and 250 with Pneumonia-in-Plan were identified. The x-ray report text classifier increased the positive predictive value of otherwise identical EMR-based case-detection algorithms by 20–70%, while retaining sensitivities of 58–75%. These performance gains were independent of the case definitions and of whether patients were admitted to the hospital or sent home. Text analyses seeking ARI symptoms in clinical notes did not add further value. Conclusion Specialized software development is not required for automated text analyses to help identify pneumonia patients. These results begin to map an efficient, replicable strategy through which EMR data can be used to stratify ARI severity.
Factors Influencing Quality of Life for Disabled and Nondisabled Elderly Population: The Results of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis
M. Avolio,S. Montagnoli,M. Marino,D. Basso,G. Furia,W. Ricciardi,A. G. de Belvis
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/258274
Abstract: Objectives. The aim of our study is to examine the role of some factors (sociodemographic patterns, social relationship support, and trust in healthcare actors) on structure of quality of life among the Italian elderly population, by stratifying according to presence or absence of disability. Methods. Using data of the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) survey, we obtained a sample of 25,183 Italian people aged 65+ years. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to test such a relationship. Results. By applying the MCA between disabled and nondisabled elderly population, we identified three dimensions: “demographic structure and social contacts,” “social relationships,” “trust in the Italian National Health Services (INHS).” Furthermore, the difference in trust on the INHS and its actors was seen among disabled and non-disabled elderly population. Conclusions. Knowledge on the concept of quality of life and its application to the elderly population either with or without disability should make a difference in both people’s life and policies and practices affecting life. New domains, such as information and trusting relationships both within and towards the care network’s nodes, are likely to play an important role in this relationship. 1. Introduction The 20th century has been characterized by a great advance in life expectancy; over the last century, chronic health problems have replaced infectious diseases as the dominant health care burden, and almost all chronic conditions are strongly related to aging. Only in the last few years many health care planners and governments have become aware of this phenomenon and population-based studies regarding age-related chronic diseases have been implemented. Despite the worldwide aging phenomenon, data regarding health and time trends referring to the health of the elderly population are still inadequate [1]. Welfare systems urge to address the social determinants and social gradients of health among the elderly population, for whom social relationships play an important role in access and use of higher quality healthcare services [2]. Among the elderly population, participation in social relationships is likely to be associated with better health status indicators [3–10]. Similarly, poor social relationships are likely to be associated with worse measures of quality of life [11, 12]. Furthermore, the association between social networks and health status is likely to be influenced by social context and therefore by behavioral, cultural, psychological, and physiological condition and
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