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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 575674 matches for " Antonio A. F. Loureiro "
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A Hybrid Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks
Carlos M. S. Figueiredo,Eduardo F. Nakamura,Antonio A. F. Loureiro
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90907287
Abstract: Routing is a basic function in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For these networks, routing algorithms depend on the characteristics of the applications and, consequently, there is no self-contained algorithm suitable for every case. In some scenarios, the network behavior (traffic load) may vary a lot, such as an event-driven application, favoring different algorithms at different instants. This work presents a hybrid and adaptive algorithm for routing in WSNs, called Multi-MAF, that adapts its behavior autonomously in response to the variation of network conditions. In particular, the proposed algorithm applies both reactive and proactive strategies for routing infrastructure creation, and uses an event-detection estimation model to change between the strategies and save energy. To show the advantages of the proposed approach, it is evaluated through simulations. Comparisons with independent reactive and proactive algorithms show improvements on energy consumption.
Data Driven Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks
Alejandro C. Frery,Heitor S. Ramos,José Alencar-Neto,Eduardo Nakamura,Antonio A. F. Loureiro
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100302150
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are presented as devices for signal sampling and reconstruction. Within this framework, the qualitative and quantitative influence of (i) signal granularity, (ii) spatial distribution of sensors, (iii) sensors clustering, and (iv) signal reconstruction procedure are assessed. This is done by defining an error metric and performing a Monte Carlo experiment. It is shown that all these factors have significant impact on the quality of the reconstructed signal. The extent of such impact is quantitatively assessed.
Group Mobility: Detection, Tracking and Characterization
Ivan Oliveira Nunes,Pedro O. S. Vaz de Melo,Antonio A. F. Loureiro
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In the era of mobile computing, understanding human mobility patterns is crucial in order to better design protocols and applications. Many studies focus on different aspects of human mobility such as people's points of interests, routes, traffic, individual mobility patterns, among others. In this work, we propose to look at human mobility through a social perspective, i.e., analyze the impact of social groups in mobility patterns. We use the MIT Reality Mining proximity trace to detect, track and investigate group's evolution throughout time. Our results show that group meetings happen in a periodical fashion and present daily and weekly periodicity. We analyze how groups' dynamics change over day hours and find that group meetings lasting longer are those with less changes in members composition and with members having stronger social bonds with each other. Our findings can be used to propose meeting prediction algorithms, opportunistic routing and information diffusion protocols, taking advantage of those revealed properties.
A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications
Kássio Machado,Denis Rosário,Eduardo Cerqueira,Antonio A. F. Loureiro,Augusto Neto,José Neuman de Souza
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130201942
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.
Universal and Distinct Properties of Communication Dynamics: How to Generate Realistic Inter-event Times
Pedro O. S. Vaz de Melo,Christos Faloutsos,Renato Assun??o,Rodrigo Alves,Antonio A. F. Loureiro
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1145/2700399
Abstract: With the advancement of information systems, means of communications are becoming cheaper, faster and more available. Today, millions of people carrying smart-phones or tablets are able to communicate at practically any time and anywhere they want. Among others, they can access their e-mails, comment on weblogs, watch and post comments on videos, make phone calls or text messages almost ubiquitously. Given this scenario, in this paper we tackle a fundamental aspect of this new era of communication: how the time intervals between communication events behave for different technologies and means of communications? Are there universal patterns for the inter-event time distribution (IED)? In which ways inter-event times behave differently among particular technologies? To answer these questions, we analyze eight different datasets from real and modern communication data and we found four well defined patterns that are seen in all the eight datasets. Moreover, we propose the use of the Self-Feeding Process (SFP) to generate inter-event times between communications. The SFP is extremely parsimonious point process that requires at most two parameters and is able to generate inter-event times with all the universal properties we observed in the data. We show the potential application of SFP by proposing a framework to generate a synthetic dataset containing realistic communication events of any one of the analyzed means of communications (e.g. phone calls, e-mails, comments on blogs) and an algorithm to detect anomalies.
Magnetic Reconnection Onset via Disruption of a Forming Current Sheet by the Tearing Instability
Dmitri A. Uzdensky,Nuno F. Loureiro
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The recent realization that Sweet-Parker current sheets are violently unstable to the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability implies that such current sheets cannot occur in real systems. This suggests that, in order to understand the onset of magnetic reconnection, one needs to consider the growth of the tearing instability in a current layer as it is being formed. Such an analysis is performed here in the context of nonlinear resistive MHD for a generic time-dependent equilibrium representing a gradually forming current sheet. It is shown that two regimes, single-island and multi-island, are possible, depending on the rate of current sheet formation. A simple model is used to compute the criterion for transition between these two regimes, as well as the reconnection onset time and the current sheet parameters at that moment. For typical solar corona parameters this model yields results consistent with observations.
Magnetic reconnection: from the Sweet-Parker model to stochastic plasmoid chains
N. F. Loureiro,D. A. Uzdensky
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: (abridged) Magnetic reconnection is the topological reconfiguration of the magnetic field in a plasma, accompanied by the violent release of energy and particle acceleration. Reconnection is as ubiquitous as plasmas themselves, with solar flares perhaps the most popular example. Over the last few years, the theoretical understanding of magnetic reconnection in large-scale fluid systems has undergone a major paradigm shift. The steady-state model of reconnection described by the famous Sweet-Parker (SP) theory, which dominated the field for ~50 years, has been replaced with an essentially time-dependent, bursty picture of the reconnection layer, dominated by the continuous formation and ejection of multiple secondary islands (plasmoids). Whereas in the SP model reconnection was predicted to be slow, a major implication of this new paradigm is that reconnection in fluid systems is fast (i.e., independent of the Lundquist number), provided that the system is large enough. This conceptual shift hinges on the realization that SP-like current layers are violently unstable to the plasmoid instability - implying, therefore, that such current sheets are super-critically unstable and thus can never form in the first place. This suggests that the formation of a current sheet and the subsequent reconnection process cannot be decoupled, as is commonly assumed. This paper provides an introductory-level overview of the recent developments in reconnection theory and simulations that led to this essentially new framework. We briefly discuss the role played by the plasmoid instability in selected applications, and describe some of the outstanding challenges that remain at the frontier of this subject. Amongst these are the analytical and numerical extension of the plasmoid instability to (i) 3D and (ii) non-MHD regimes. New results are reported in both cases.
Fast magnetic reconnection in the plasmoid-dominated regime
D. A. Uzdensky,N. F. Loureiro,A. A. Schekochihin
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.235002
Abstract: A conceptual model of resistive magnetic reconnection via a stochastic plasmoid chain is proposed. The global reconnection rate is shown to be independent of the Lundquist number. The distribution of fluxes in the plasmoids is shown to be an inverse square law. It is argued that there is a finite probability of emergence of abnormally large plasmoids, which can disrupt the chain (and may be responsible for observable large abrupt events in solar flares and sawtooth crashes). A criterion for the transition from magnetohydrodynamic to collisionless regime is provided.
Fluctuation-dissipation relations for a plasma-kinetic Langevin equation
A. Kanekar,A. A. Schekochihin,W. Dorland,N. F. Loureiro
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/S0022377814000622
Abstract: A linearised kinetic equation describing electrostatic perturbations of a Maxwellian equilibrium in a weakly collisional plasma forced by a random source is considered. The problem is treated as a kinetic analogue of the Langevin equation and the corresponding fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived. This kinetic fluctuation-dissipation theorem reduces to the standard "fluid" one in the regime where the Landau damping rate is small and the system has no real frequency; in this case the simplest possible Landau-fluid closure of the kinetic equation coincides with the standard Langevin equation. Phase mixing of density fluctuations and emergence of fine scales in velocity space is diagnosed as a constant flux of free energy in Hermite space; the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the perturbations of the distribution function is derived, in the form of a universal expression for the Hermite spectrum of the free energy. Finite-collisionality effects are included. This work is aimed at establishing the simplest fluctuation-dissipation relations for a kinetic plasma, clarifying the connection between Landau and Hermite-space formalisms, and setting a benchmark case for a study of phase mixing in turbulent plasmas.
Fast collisionless reconnection and electron heating in strongly magnetized plasmas
N. F. Loureiro,A. A. Schekochihin,A. Zocco
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.025002
Abstract: Magnetic reconnection in strongly magnetized (low-beta), weakly collisional plasmas is investigated using a novel fluid-kinetic model [Zocco & Schekochihin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102309 (2011)] which retains non-isothermal electron kinetics. It is shown that electron heating via Landau damping (linear phase mixing) is the dominant dissipation mechanism. In time, electron heating occurs after the peak of the reconnection rate; in space, it is concentrated along the separatrices of the magnetic island. For sufficiently large systems, the peak reconnection rate is $cE_{max}\approx 0.2v_AB_{y,0}$, where $v_A$ is the Alfv\'en speed based on the reconnecting field $B_{y,0}$. The island saturation width is the same as in MHD models except for small systems, when it becomes comparable to the kinetic scales.
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