Abstract:
In the last times some scholars tried to characterize Einstein’s distinction between “constructive” —i.e. deductive-theories—and “principle” theories, the latter ones being preferred by Einstein. Here this distinction is qualified by an accurate inspection on past physical theories. Some previous theories are surely non-deductive theories. By a mutual comparison of them a set of features—mainly the arguing according to non-classical logic—are extracted. They manifest a new ideal model of organising a theory. Einstein’s paper of 1905 on quanta, qualified by him as presenting a “principle theory”, is interpreted according to this model of theory. Some unprecedented characteristic features are manifested. At the beginning of the same paper Einstein declared one more dichotomy about the kind of mathematics in theoretical physics. These two dichotomies are recognized to constitute the foundations of theoretical physics. With respect to these dichotomies the choices by Einstein in the paper on quanta are the alternative choices to Newton’s ones. This fact gives reason to the “revolutionary” nature that Einstein attributed to his paper.

Abstract:
By interpreting and joining together the
historiographic categories suggested by Bogdanov, Sohn-Rethel and Koyré I obtained two dichotomies as the foundations of
both natural science and social science, providing that
they are conveniently interpreted according to each of
these two cases. In particular, a new characterization of Marx’ theory of
society is obtained.

Abstract:
The present paper addresses
the criticism of Kant that he ignored both the non-classical reasoning of the
empiricists and Leibniz’s attempt to found mechanics anew. By taking into
account this logical divergence Kant’s antinomies—actually applying Leibniz’s
two labyrinths of human reason to particular subjects—represent two parallel ways
of reasoning according to the two alternatives of a dichotomy regarding the
kind of logic. By adding a dichotomy regarding the kind of mathematics a new
conception of the foundations of the science is obtained. Leibniz’s philosophy
of knowledge represents the closest approximation to these foundations in both
the history of science and the history of philosophy of knowledge.

Abstract:
Since 1947 a foundation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) on functional analysis was suggested by Segal. By defining the C*-algebra of the observables, then the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal theorem faithfully represents this algebra into Hilbert space. In the 70’s Emch has reiterated this formulation and improved it. Recently Strocchi improved it even more. First, he suggested an axiomatization of the paradigmatic Dirac-von Neumann’s formulation of QM to which he addresses two basic criticisms, i.e. a weak linkage with the experimental basis of theoretical physics and the obscurity about the separation mark between classical mechanics and QM. Afterwards, through an analysis of the experimental basis of a physical theory he suggests an explanation of Segal’s restriction of the operators to be bounded. Eventually, he represents this algebra into Hilbert space and at last, by means of Weyl algebra he obtains the symmetries of the dynamics of a particle theory. In fact, several characteristic features of this formulation correspond to those determined by the two choices which are the alternative ones to the choices of the dominant formulation. It is a problem-based theory, since it starts rather from than axioms a problem (i.e. the indeterminacy); then, it argues through both doubly negated propositions and an？ad absurdum？proof. Moreover, its theoretical development is similar to that of an alternative classical theory since it put, before the geometry, the algebra; the bounded operators are represented by a polynomial algebra; which pertains to constructive mathematics. Eventually, he obtains the symmetries of the theory. The problems to be overcome in order to accurately re-construct his formulation according to the two alternative choices？which？are listed. It is concluded that rather an alternative role, it plays a complementary role to the paradigmatic formulation.

Abstract:
Often, in the original scientific writings, a double negated statement (DNS) is not equivalent to his corresponding positive one; that means the inferring law 'non non A -> A' does not apply. Recent studies recognized in the failure of this logical law the borderline between classical and non-classical logics. Original writings by classical chemists dealing with the problem of atomism are particularly characterized by the occurrences of DNSs. An historical case, Avogadro's contribution to atomism (i.e. the well-known hypothesis about the constitution of gases), is here analyzed in such terms. It turns out that, in order to support his ideas, Avogadro suggested several ad absurdum proofs, indeed a way of reasoning typically linked to the use of DNSs.

Abstract:
The old historiography considered only cumulative, positive scientific results. Koyré’s one instead
took into account both successes and errors of scientists in the context of their culture. In 1962,
Kuhn introduced a completely new conception of the scientific events based on a ceaseless succession
of paradigms and revolutions. The success of his book, The structure of scientific revolutions,
was immediate. But more than the “revolution” cited in title of the book, his main concept was the
“paradigm”, which is the set of the concepts ruling the scientific practice of a given community.
Although largely accepted, Kuhn’s scheme was not spared by criticisms, also from scholars favorable
to it. Therefore, throughout his life he was forced to reassess it several times, although
never stopping to consider it valid, even when he renounced to apply it to the study of the birth of
quanta. In this work, he opposed to the revolution of quanta that previous historians fixed in the
years 1900-01, a sort of continuity between the Boltzmann’s classical concepts and the Planck’s
mathematics. The debate on Kuhn’s historiographic ideas has been wide and rich in intellectual
stimuli. Actually, he took advantage of those stimuli to develop a better definition of his system.
Towards the end of his life, with the aim to give a final version to his original scheme, he went back
to consider a parallelism between the history of science and the biological evolutionism, already
introduced in SSR. The present paper is aimed at analyzing these Kuhn’s suggestions on the methodology
of history of science; we will provide an interpretive framework linking each of his different
historiographical suggestion with a specific scientific theory; i.e. respectively, the Newtonian
mechanics, the thermodynamics and the Darwinian theory of evolution. In other words, we
wanted to show that Kuhn always made use of historical categories corresponding to the basic notions
of a particular scientific theory.

Abstract:
To stop adverse trends and handle the crisis situation on the one hand and to reach turning-point and insure the foundations for new development on the other hand are usually two basic tasks of crisis management when it performs necessary activities in the company in acute crisis. For the successful resolution of a crisis, it is of key importance that the crisis is tackled by managers who along with a desirable knowledge of the company’s activities are familiarized with the special characteristics of the crisis management and general creative (intuitive) approach. For their work crisis management will require strategic, as well as fully operational formal and empirical knowledge, possessing at least the minimum amount of knowledge from every business field. Based on the research described in this paper using the sample of selected companies undergoing acute crisis, it is emphasized that from all necessary competences, which crisis team members should possess, the most important thing is the knowledge and experiences from the area of radical restructuring of the company, whereas the familiarisation with the field of operation whose characteristics can soon be mastered by the crisis team members is less important. The financial view of the acute crisis resolution is very important; however, the company cannot further survive if only this area of operation is addressed.

Abstract:
Chen (1993) established a sharp inequality for the sectional curvature of a submanifold in Riemannian space forms in terms of the scalar curvature and squared mean curvature. The notion of a semislant submanifold of a Sasakian manifold was introduced by J. L. Cabrerizo, A. Carriazo, L. M. Fernandez, and M. Fernandez (1999). In the present paper, we establish Chen inequalities for semislant submanifolds in Sasakian space forms by using subspaces orthogonal to the Reeb vector field ξ.

Abstract:
In this paper is presented a brief survey of thirty years investigations and controlled shellfish farming in brackish waters of the Krka river estuary. Special emphasis was placed on physical planning of the ibenik–Knin county and the town of ibenik. The presentation of shellfish farming status at the end of the year 2007 provides the survey of shellfish farming area and the number of concessionaires, the structure of farmers, production and potential for shellfish farming, dispatch centres and shellfish farm infrastructure as well as market conditions. Problems were highlighted that restrained the development of aquaculture in the Krka river estuary along with the activities necessary to be performed before entering the European Union, providing potential scenarios of shellfish farming in the future.

Abstract:
The EU budget is the financial tool supporting European integration. The way it has developed over decades, both as concerns revenues and expenditure, superposed to a complex decision-making process, where member states retain veto rights in crucial respects, means that it currently displays a significant inertia, while its size and structure are not the most appropriate for endowing the Union with the means allowing it to best react to the present-day challenges. Tensions are also rising between the national interests of individual members and the common interest, which previous attempts to reconcile by way of special treatments granted to some countries are clearly unsustainable, while inducing additional rigidities to the budgetary construction. This obviates the need for a comprehensive reform, which the 2008/2009 budget review that the Commission was mandated to undertake may set in motion. The following paper attempts at taking stock of the most significant problems in need of a solution and to explore the most appropriate ways available for tackling them.