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Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy Carlota,Bustamante Dulce María,Rodas Antonieta,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy Carlota,Rodas Antonieta,Mejía Mildred,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: A five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of Guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), 2,344 were Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859, and only 109 were T. nitida Usinger 1939. The Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. Their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in T. nitida(13.8%). However there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). T. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for R. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). The sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. More males than females were found inside houses for T. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and T. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for R. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. Sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of T. dimidiata in different populations. T. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but R. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce María;Rodas, Antonieta;Rosales, Regina;Mejía, Mildred;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000100006
Abstract: triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. compared to previous information, the distribution of t. nitida in guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. fourteen percent of the intradomestic t. nitida were infected with trypanosoma cruzi. the species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (t. dimidiata and rhodnius prolixus). the domestic and peridomestic presence of t. nitida in guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. t. nitida appears to have a low importance as chagas disease vector in guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. however, it clearly has potential to become a chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of t. nitida following the control programs in guatemala. morphometric analysis of 47 t. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of t. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy, Carlota;Rodas, Antonieta;Mejía, Mildred;Rosales, Regina;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000300003
Abstract: a five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were triatoma dimidiata (latreille, 1811), 2,344 were rhodnius prolixus stal 1859, and only 109 were t. nitida usinger 1939. the chagas disease parasite, trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in t. nitida(13.8%). however there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). t. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for r. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). the sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. more males than females were found inside houses for t. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and t. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for r. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of t. dimidiata in different populations. t. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but r. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Prevalencia de sensibilización a látex en personal de pabellones quirúrgicos del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity in operating room workers of the University of Chile Clinical Hospital
M Antonieta Guzmán M,Virginia Arancibia E,Jessica Salinas L,Claudia Rodas E
Revista médica de Chile , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Health care workers (HCW) are a high risk group for developing natural rubber latex (NRL) hypersensitivity and allergy. Some studies showed a correlation between time and frequency of exposure to NRL gloves and hypersensitivity, but a recent meta-analysis showed no clear evidences for such assumption. Aim: To determine the prevalence of NRL hypersensitivity and allergy in a group of HCW at the University of Chile Clinical Hospital. Materials and Methods: Ninety five HCW (aged 37±10 years, 59 females) were interviewed about time of exposure, atopic diseases and latex-related allergy symptoms. Different NRL extracts and seven NRL gloves brands were tested by the prick test method. Results: Twenty four workers (25%, 95% CI = 16.9%-35.2%) were sensitized. No gender differences were found. No symptomatic cases were found in the sensitized group. In the workplace, six and two non sensitized subjects had respiratory symptoms or contact urticaria, respectively. Sensitivity to bananas, avocadoes, kiwi and chestnut was not significantly more common among latex sensitive individuals. No differences between sensitized and non sensitized subjects were observed for the presence of atopic diseases or the mean number of years at the workplace. The sensitization rate to NRL increased along with years of work, from 18.6% in patients working less than 10 years, to 28.1% in the group between 10 and 20 years and to 35% in those working more than 21 years (p=0.693). Sensitization was also related to the weekly hours of exposure: 1-10 hours, 17%; 11-20 hours, 23.5%; 21-30 hours, 50% and 31-40 hours, 28.5% (p=0.036). Conclusions: Sensitization increased proportionally to the years and weekly hours wearing NLR gloves. We did not find symptomatic patients in the sensitized group
Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize
Lori Stevens ,M. Carlota Monroy,Antonieta Guadalupe Rodas,Patricia L. Dorn
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003047
Abstract: Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.
The number of families of Triatoma dimidiata in a Guatemalan house
Melgar, Sergio;Chávez, Juan José;Landaverde, Patricia;Herrera, Franklin;Rodas, Antonieta;Enríquez, Eunice;Dorn, Patricia;Monroy, Carlota;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762007005000001
Abstract: triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of chagas disease in guatemala. to help understand the biology and population dynamics of the insect, we estimated the number of full sibling families living in one house. forty one families with an average size of 2.17 individuals were detected using random amplification of polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction genetic markers. this result suggests high levels of migration of the vector, polyandry, and a significant capability for spreading the disease.
House improvements and community participation in the control of Triatoma dimidiata re-infestation in Jutiapa, Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce Maria;Pineda, Sandy;Rodas, Antonieta;Castro, Xochitl;Ayala, Virgilio;Qui?ónes, Javier;Moguel, Bárbara;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001300016
Abstract: the deterioration or absence of plaster walls in houses and poor hygienic conditions are the most important risk factors for indoor triatoma dimidiata infestation in guatemala. a cross-disciplinary study was conducted addressing t. dimidiata infestation, household hygiene, and housing construction. the study focused on local materials and cultural aspects (including gender roles) that could lead to long-term improvements in wall construction. a new plaster mix for walls was developed on the basis of laboratory studies on construction materials recommended by local villagers. four villages with persistent (post-spraying) t. dimidiata infestation were studied. in two villages, an ecosystem approach was implemented, and the homeowners conducted wall improvements and household sanitation with the support of the interdisciplinary team (the ecosystem intervention). in the other two villages, a vector control approach based on insecticide spraying was adopted (traditional intervention). both interventions were associated with a reduction in t. dimidiata infestation, but only the ecosystem approach produced important housing improvements (sanitation and wall construction) capable of preventing t. dimidiata re-infestation in the long term.
Prevalencia de sensibilización a látex en personal de pabellones quirúrgicos del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile
Guzmán M,M Antonieta; Arancibia E,Virginia; Salinas L,Jessica; Rodas E,Claudia; Roa A,Johanna; Villegas R,Rodrigo;
Revista médica de Chile , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872005000500004
Abstract: background: health care workers (hcw) are a high risk group for developing natural rubber latex (nrl) hypersensitivity and allergy. some studies showed a correlation between time and frequency of exposure to nrl gloves and hypersensitivity, but a recent meta-analysis showed no clear evidences for such assumption. aim: to determine the prevalence of nrl hypersensitivity and allergy in a group of hcw at the university of chile clinical hospital. materials and methods: ninety five hcw (aged 37±10 years, 59 females) were interviewed about time of exposure, atopic diseases and latex-related allergy symptoms. different nrl extracts and seven nrl gloves brands were tested by the prick test method. results: twenty four workers (25%, 95% ci = 16.9%-35.2%) were sensitized. no gender differences were found. no symptomatic cases were found in the sensitized group. in the workplace, six and two non sensitized subjects had respiratory symptoms or contact urticaria, respectively. sensitivity to bananas, avocadoes, kiwi and chestnut was not significantly more common among latex sensitive individuals. no differences between sensitized and non sensitized subjects were observed for the presence of atopic diseases or the mean number of years at the workplace. the sensitization rate to nrl increased along with years of work, from 18.6% in patients working less than 10 years, to 28.1% in the group between 10 and 20 years and to 35% in those working more than 21 years (p=0.693). sensitization was also related to the weekly hours of exposure: 1-10 hours, 17%; 11-20 hours, 23.5%; 21-30 hours, 50% and 31-40 hours, 28.5% (p=0.036). conclusions: sensitization increased proportionally to the years and weekly hours wearing nlr gloves. we did not find symptomatic patients in the sensitized group
Risk factors for intradomiciliary infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiatain Jutiapa, Guatemala
Bustamante, Dulce Maria;Monroy, Carlota;Pineda, Sandy;Rodas, Antonieta;Castro, Xochitl;Ayala, Virgilio;Qui?ónes, Javier;Moguel, Bárbara;Trampe, Ranferi;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001300008
Abstract: seventeen variables were evaluated as possible risk factors for the intradomiciliary infestation with triatoma dimidiata in 644 houses in jutiapa, guatemala. during 2004 the houses were assessed for vector presence and evaluated for hygiene, cluttering, material comfort, construction conditions and number of inhabitants, among other factors. chi-square analysis detected significant associations between vector presence and eight variables related to domestic sanitary and construction conditions. log-linear models showed that regardless of the age of the house, the odds of vector presence were 4.3 and 10 times lower in houses with a good socioeconomic status compared with poor and very poor houses respectively. log-linear models also pointed to a greater chance of vector presence when walls lacked plastering (3.85 times) or walls had low quality-incomplete plastering (4.56 times), compared with walls that were completely plastered. control strategies against t. dimidiata should include the introduction of better-quality but inexpensive plastering formulations and better sanitation practices should also be promoted among the population. such control strategies should not only reduce or eliminate infestation, but also prevent vector reinfestation.
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