Abstract:
We consider probabilistic theories in which the most elementary system, a two-dimensional system, contains one bit of information. The bit is assumed to be contained in any complete set of mutually complementary measurements. The requirement of invariance of the information under a continuous change of the set of mutually complementary measurements uniquely singles out a measure of information, which is quadratic in probabilities. The assumption which gives the same scaling of the number of degrees of freedom with the dimension as in quantum theory follows essentially from the assumption that all physical states of a higher dimensional system are those and only those from which one can post-select physical states of two-dimensional systems. The requirement that no more than one bit of information (as quantified by the quadratic measure) is contained in all possible post-selected two-dimensional systems is equivalent to the positivity of density operator in quantum theory.

Abstract:
Efficient teleportation is a crucial step for quantum computation and quantum networking. In the case of qubits, four different entangled Bell states have to be distinguished. We have realized a probabilistic, but in principle deterministic, Bell-state analyzer for two photonic quantum bits by the use of a nondestructive controlled-NOT gate based on entirely linear optical elements. This gate was capable of distinguishing between all of the Bell states with higher than 75% fidelity without any noise substraction due to utilizing quantum interference effects.

Abstract:
In a classical measurement the Shannon information is a natural measure of our ignorance about properties of a system. There, observation removes that ignorance in revealing properties of the system which can be considered to preexist prior to and independent of observation. Because of the completely different root of a quantum measurement as compared to a classical measurement conceptual difficulties arise when we try to define the information gain in a quantum measurement using the notion of Shannon information. The reason is that, in contrast to classical measurement, quantum measurement, with very few exceptions, cannot be claimed to reveal a property of the individual quantum system existing before the measurement is performed.

Abstract:
Young's experiment is the quintessential quantum experiment. It is argued here that quantum interference is a consequence of the finiteness of information. The observer has the choice whether that information manifests itself as path information or in the interference pattern or in both partially to the extent defined by the finiteness of information.

Abstract:
Niels Bohr wrote: "There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about Nature." In an analogous way, von Weizsaecker suggested that the notion of the elementary alternative, the "Ur", should play a pivotal role when constructing physics. Both approaches suggest that the concept of information should play an essential role in the foundations of any scientific description of Nature. We show that if, in our description of Nature, we use one definite proposition per elementary constituent of Nature, some of the essential characteristics of quantum physics, such as the irreducible randomness of individual events, quantum complementary and quantum entanglement, arise in a natural way. Then quantum physics is an elementary theory of information.

Abstract:
A new measure of information in quantum mechanics is proposed which takes into account that for quantum systems the only feature known before an experiment is performed are the probabilities for various events to occur. The sum of the individual measures of information for mutually complementary observations is invariant under the choice of the particular set of complementary observations and conserved if there is no information exchange with an environment. That operational quantum information invariant results in N bits of information for a system consisting of N qubits.

Abstract:
Motivated by Hall's recent comment in quant-ph/0007116 we point out in some detail the essence of our reasoning why we believe that Shannon's information is not an adequate choice when defining the information gain in quantum measurements as opposed to classical observations.

Abstract:
We present a scheme, based only on linear optics and standard photon detection, that allows to generate heralded multiphoton entangled states of arbitrary photon number from spontaneous parametric downconversion (PDC) in the weak interaction regime. The scheme also works in the strong interaction regime, i.e., for the production of large photon numbers, when photon-number resolving detectors with nearly perfect quantum efficiency are used. In addition, the same setup can be used for quantum metrology as multiphoton interferometer with sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit.

Abstract:
Building on Peres's idea of "Delayed-choice for extanglement swapping" we show that even the degree to which quantum systems were entangled can be defined after they have been registered and may even not exist any more. This does not arise as a paradox if the quantum state is viewed as just a representative of information. Moreover such a view gives a natural quantification of the complementarity between the measure of information about the input state for teleportation and the amount of entanglement of the resulting swapped entangled state.