Abstract:
Understanding non-stationary neuronal activity as seen in vivo requires estimation of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances from a single trial of recording. For this purpose, we propose a new intracellular recording method, called “firing clamp.” Synaptic conductances are estimated from the characteristics of artificially evoked probe spikes, namely the spike amplitude and the mean subthreshold potential, which are sensitive to both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input signals. The probe spikes, timed at a fixed rate, are evoked in the dynamic-clamp mode by injected meander-like current steps, with the step duration depending on neuronal membrane voltage. We test the method with perforated-patch recordings from isolated cells stimulated by external application or synaptic release of transmitter, and validate the method with simulations of a biophysically-detailed neuron model. The results are compared with the conductance estimates based on conventional current-clamp recordings.

Abstract:
The production of new spin-1 chiral bosons at the hadron colliders, the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC, is considered. The masses of the chiral bosons can be determined on the basis of experimental data of precise low-energy experiments, which already indicate indirectly their existence. They can explain, for example, the serious 4.5 sigma discrepancy between the measured and the predicted two pion branching ratio of the tau decay and the sign of the 3.3 sigma deviation of the muon (g-2) theoretical prediction from the experimental value. Quantitative evaluations of the various differential cross-sections of the chiral boson production at hadron colliders are made using the CalcHEP package. It is noteworthy that the Tevatron data already hint the existence of the lightest charged chiral boson with a mass around 500 GeV. New Tevatron data and the LHC results will definitely confirm or reject this indication. In the positive case the LHC would be able to discover all predicted charged and neutral chiral bosons spanning in mass up to 1 TeV.

Abstract:
The resonance production of new chiral spin-1 excited bosons, Z*, and their detection through the Drell-Yan process in the first physical runs at the CERN LHC are considered. The new neutral chiral bosons can be observed as a Breit-Wigner resonance peaks in the invariant dilepton mass distribution in the same way as the well-known hypothetical gauge bosons, Z'. However, unique new signatures of the chiral bosons exist. These signatures could be very important for the interpretation of the first LHC data. First, there is no Jacobian peak in the lepton transverse momentum distribution at the kinematical endpoint of the new resonance. Second, the lepton angular distribution in the Collins-Soper frame for the high on-peak invariant masses of the lepton pairs has a peculiar "swallowtail" shape.

Abstract:
Direct constraints on the masses of new heavy bosons by the Tevatron data are discussed. Some excesses in the experimental data are interpreted as a resonance production of new charged and `leptophobic' neutral chiral bosons with masses around 500 GeV and 700 GeV, respectively. The interpretation was provided on the basis of the theoretical model, proposed by the author about 15 years ago. New Tevatron data and the LHC results will definitely confirm or reject this interpretation. The ILC with an energy above 1 TeV would be an ideal place to produce and to study the properties of these particles.

Abstract:
At present it is generally believed that ``new physics'' effects contribute to leptonic anomalous magnetic moment, a_l, via quantum loops only and they are proportional to the squared lepton mass, (m_l)^2. An alternative mechanism for a contribution by new physics is proposed. It occurs at the tree level and exhibits a linear rather than quadratic dependence on m_l. This leads to a much larger sensitivity of a_e to the new physics than was expected so far.

Abstract:
It is shown that in the one-flavour NJL model the vector and axial-vector quasiparticles described by the antisymmetric tensor field are generated. These excitations have tensor interactions with quarks in contrast to usual vector ones. Phenomenological applications are discussed.

Abstract:
It is known that the discrepancy in pion spectral functions extracted from positron-electron annihilation and tau decay leads to different predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We will show that this discrepancy effects also the extraction of the Cabibbo angle from the hadronic tau decays. The corrections to the tau branching fractions, corresponding to the presence of new centi-weak tensor interactions, allow us to extract the Cabibbo angle from tau decays in agreement with its other precision determinations. Thus a more precise value of |V_us|=0.2246 +/- 0.0012 is obtained and as a consequence f(0)=0.9645 +/- 0.0055 and F_K/F_pi=1.196 +/- 0.007.

Abstract:
The production of new spin-1 chiral bosons at the hadron colliders, the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC, is considered. The masses of the chiral bosons can be determined on the basis of experimental data of precise low-energy experiments, which already indicate indirectly their existence. They can explain, for example, the serious 4.5 sigma discrepancy between the measured and the predicted two pion branching ratio of the tau decay and the sign of the 3.3 sigma deviation of the muon (g-2) theoretical prediction from the experimental value. Quantitative evaluations of the various differential cross-sections of the chiral boson production at hadron colliders are made using the CalcHEP package. It is noteworthy that the Tevatron data already hint the existence of the lightest charged chiral boson with a mass around 500 GeV. New Tevatron data and the LHC results will definitely confirm or reject this indication. In the positive case the LHC would be able to discover all predicted charged and neutral chiral bosons spanning in mass up to 1 TeV.

Abstract:
Predictions for the muon decay spectrum are usually derived from the derivative-free Hamiltonian. However, it is not the most general form of the possible interactions. Additional simple terms with derivatives can be introduced. In this work the distortion of the standard energy and angular distribution of the electrons in polarized muon decay caused by these terms is presented.