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The role of process data in the development and testing of process models of judgment and decision making
Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck,Anton Kuhberger,Rob Ranyard
Judgment and Decision Making , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to evaluate the contribution of process tracing data to the development and testing of models of judgment and decision making (JDM). We draw on our experience of editing the ``Handbook of process tracing methods for decision research'' recently published in the SJDM series. After a brief introduction we first describe classic process tracing methods (thinking aloud, Mouselab, eye-tracking). Then we present a series of examples of how each of these techniques has made important contributions to the development and testing of process models of JDM. We discuss the issue of large data volumes resulting from process tracing and remedies for handling those. Finally, we argue for the importance of formulating process hypotheses and opt for a multi-method approach that focuses on the cross-validation of findings.
Merging Effluent Discharge Plumes from Multiport Diffusers on a Sloping Beach  [PDF]
Anton Purnama
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.31004
Abstract: Multiport diffusers are the effective engineering devices installed at the marine outfall systems for the steady discharge of effluent streams from the modern coastal plants, such as municipal sewage treatment, power generation and seawater desalination. A far field mathematical model using a two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation is presented for continuous discharges of effluent streams from multiple outfalls on a uniformly sloping beach with a current parallel to the shoreline. The analytical solutions are illustrated graphically to replicate and capture the merging process of effluent plumes in shallow coastal waters, and then asymptotic approximation will be made to the maximum shoreline’s concentration to formulate effluent discharge plume dilution from a multiport diffuser.
Effluent Discharges from Two Outfalls on a Sloping Beach  [PDF]
Anton Purnama
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.519295
Abstract: A marine outfall is a long pipeline that continuously discharges large amounts of effluent streams into the sea. As the number of marine outfalls along the coastal areas is growing, a far field mathematical model with two point sources on a sloping beach is used to assess the coastal water quality following discharges from two outfalls. Asymptotic approximation will be made to the concentration at the beach to measure how well the effluent plumes are mixed and diluted in the coastal waters. The result found agrees with the engineering practice of installing a two-port diffuser at the end of a single outfall to minimize its potential environment impacts.
The Calculation of Stress-Strain State of Anisotropic Composite Finite-Element Area with Different Boundary Conditions on the Surface  [PDF]
Bergulyov Anton
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2014.41004

The numerical analytic research approach of stress-strain state of anisotropic composite finite element area with different boundary conditions on the surface, is represented below. The problem is solved by using a spatial model of the elasticity theory. Differential equation system in partial derivatives reduces to one-dimensional problem using spline collocation method in two coordinate directions. Boundary problem for the system of ordinary higher-order differential equation is solved by using the stable numerical technique of discrete orthogonalization.

Suppression of immunity by some pesticides, xenobiotics, and industrial chemicals. In vitro model  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz, Anton Brondz
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.23028
Abstract: In recent years, attention has focused on suppression of immunity in immunocompromised patients. The definition of immunocompromise is impairment of the immune system caused by a disease or treatment. In addition to disease and treatment, other factors such as exposure to pesticides or toxic chemicals can damage the immune system. An in vitro test was used to assess the ability of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) (CAS number 79-11-8), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) (CAS number 79-43-6), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (CAS number 76-03-9), and 2,2- dichloropropionic acid sodium salt (2,2-DCPANa, Dalapon) (CAS number 127-20-8) to suppress bacteriolysis by hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). The system for bacteriolysis of Gram-negative bacteria Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella in Tris-maleate buffer supplemented with EDTA and HEWL developed by Brondz et al. [1–4] was used to monitor bacteriolysis of Gram-negative bacteria in the Actinobacillus–Haemophilus–Pasteurella group. The halogenated acetic acid DCA is produced as a toxic artifact of the degradation of TCA and by disinfection of drinking and pool water and industrial waste. Nearly all humans consume DCA in drinking water during their lifetime; the concentration of DCA in drinking water can be higher than that associated with the upper-bound excess life-time cancer risk of 10–4 (40μg/L) [5]. Lysozyme found in tears, saliva, nasal secretions, and excretions from all mucous membranes can break down the cell walls of bacteria and destabilize bacterial membranes. Lysozyme is involved in innate (nonspecific) immunity; the innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading organisms. Actinobacillus actinomy- cetemcomitans (ATCC29522), a Gram-negative bacterium whose primary ecological niche is the respiratory tract and oral cavity, provided the peptidoglycan substrate for HEWL. The optical density (OD) of a standardized suspension of A. actinomycetemcomitans decreased from 100% (OD 0.6 at 540 nm) to 23.5% after exposure to EDTA/HEWL for 50 min. After 50 min of exposure to 10.0 mg/mL of MCA, DCA, TCA, or 2,2-DCPANa as a supplement, EDTA/HEWL-induced lysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans decreased to 66.3%, 66.8%, 65.7%, and 73.6%, respectively. The aim of the presented study was the development of a model for measuring possible immunotoxic effects of chemicals, degradation products, xenobiotics and metabolites by these chemicals on the immune system. The method used is an in vitro bacteriolysis of Gram- negative bacterium induced by HEWL, described previously
Recent enhancement of the immunity in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients by hyperforin an antibiotic from Hypericum perforatum L. (in vitro model) part I  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz, Anton Brondz
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.34037
Abstract: Today, Hypericum perforatum L. is probably one of the best-characterized medicinal plants, and hyperforin is its best-characterized constituent. Extracts from H. perforatum are widely used as antidepressants; however, less attention has been given to other properties of hyperforin, such as antitumor, fungicidal, antiviral and antibacterial action, or its possible use as a substance with immunomodulation properties. The present study summarizes results that describe the influence of hyperforin as an immunomodulation agent on phagocytosis and the breakdown of Escherichia coli by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Hyperforin at 1 - 100 μg/mL concentrations was found to have a major influence on phagocytosis and the breakdown of E. coli by PMNs in vitro. A 100 μg/mL solution of hyperforin increased the uptake of non-opsonized E. coli almost 50-fold, and the uptake of IgG-opsonized E. coli more than threefold; on the other hand, the uptake of serum-opsonized bacteria was reduced to approximately 60% of that of the control. Hyperforin seems to bind to both PMNs and E. coli and acts like an opsonin. The elimination of remnants of IgG-opsonized E. coli from the PMNs was stimulated by hyperforin, while the elimination of remnants from non-op-so nized and serum-opsonized material was unaffected by the drug. Hyperforin exhibited clear immunomodulation ability as a phagocytosisstimulating agent. Hyperforin is probably inactive against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and most Gram-negative bacteria. However, it can protect acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and other immunocompromised patients by its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and by enhancement of phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Neisseria, are sensitive to hyperforin. Hyperforin has the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-testis barrier (BTB) and is a valuable antibacterial agent against meningitis and gonorrhea. These properties of hyperforin are important for an antibiotic with immunomodulation activity in the struggle against the growing mortality in AIDS patients as a result of opportunistic bacteria, as recently shown by Bekondi et al. (2006, Int. J. Infect. Dis. 10, 387-395). It could also help to combat primary and opportunistic pathogens associated with meningitis in adults' relation to HIV serostatus.
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry (SFC-MS) and MALDI-TOF-MS of Heterocyclic Compounds with Trivalent and Pentavalent Nitrogen in Cough Relief Medical Forms Tuxi and Cosylan  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz, Anton Brondz
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.312A115

Alkaloids are natural, semisynthetic or synthetic organic compounds, normally polar with basic chemical properties and containing at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring. Some synthetic or semisynthetic substances resemble the alkaloid architecture. Trivalent nitrogen in these substances is normal; however, some natural and semisynthetic alkaloids have pentavalent nitrogen. The drug pholcodine is a derivative of morphine. Pholcodine has very little addiction- developing effect. It is a semisynthetic alkaloid that was first synthesized in 1950 by Chabrier et al. Pholcodine possesses antitussive (cough relief) properties similar to codeine, morphine and ethylmorphine. The drug was used in liquid formulations as Tuxi and Tuxi Forte, and it is in present use in Tuxidrin as liquid mixture and in tablet form. Pholcodine is an Active Pharmacological Ingredient (API) in tablets and liquid mixtures. Leiras International and Weifa in Norway manufacture medical forms with pholcodine. Several impurities in pholcodine were described by J. Roe in 1997 and by Denk et al. in 2000 and 2002. In addition, several degradation products may be formed in liquid formulations under storage. Some of these products are related not to the original production of pholcodine but rather to its oxidation under storage. The appearance of degradation products strongly depends on the storage temperature and pH of the liquid phase. Pholcodine-N-oxide and pholcodine-N,N-dioxide are among the degradation (oxidation) products; pholcodine can also degrade to morphine. There is little information about the toxicity of the N-oxide and no information on the N,N-di- oxide of pholcodine. In this study, the fact that morphine is generated during the storage of formulations containing pholcodine is presented. Another antitussive mixture under the name Cosylan was analyzed to examine the oxidation of ethylmorphine to ethylmorphine-N-oxide. Ethylmorphine is the API in Cosylan.

The Technology for Preparation of Generic (Monoenantiomeric) Antimalarial Drug Primaquine by Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Separation of Primaquine from Quinocide: Simultaneous Resolution of the Enantiomers of Primaquine and Their Separation from Quinocide in One Run  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz, Anton Brondz
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.312A117

Malaria is one of the most harmful diseases on the globe. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), several million people die every year from malaria, and most of them are children. Hundreds of millions of fresh cases of ma- laria are registered by the WHO every year, and more than one-third of the earth’s population lives in malaria-endemic areas. Primaquine is an important antimalarial drug because it has gametocytocidal properties and prevents relapse in most cases. However, primaquine is a highly toxic substance, especially to the Negroid race (in Africa, Australia and North, Latin and South America) and some others. Negroid male children are most vulnerable to the toxic effects of primaquine. The toxicity of primaquine can be enhanced in mixtures with other antimalarial drugs. In the present study, unprocessed primaquine and primaquine tablets highly contaminated with quinocide (I. Brondz, Historical Overview of Chromatography and Related Techniques in Analysis of Antimalarial Drug Primaquine (Editor I. Brondz), Nova Sci- ence Publishers, Inc. (2011) ISSN 978-1-61761-944-1) are discussed versus monoenantiomeric primaquine as a drug. The contamination of primaquine with quinocide enhances the toxicity of primaquine by additive or synergistic action. The use of contaminated primaquine can be harmful. Development of a useful antimalarial vaccine can take a decade or longer. This paper describes the possibility of preparing antimalarial generic monoenantiomeric primaquine, free of both quinocide contamination and the ineffective enantiomer of primaquine, using fractionation by supercritical fluid chromatography equipped with a new experimental High Resolution Isomer Column (HRIC). By this approach, it is pos- sible to produce a significant amount of pharmacologically active enantiomer of primaquine at relatively low cost for a broad range of patients sensitive to contaminated primaquine. Leading pharmacopoeias should no longer deny the pre- sence of the toxic contaminant quinocide in relatively high concentrations in unprocessed primaquine and in prima- quine tablets. New standards for antimalarial primaquine diphosphate tablets must be adopted in pharmacopoeias and by the pharmaceutical industry.

Review: Isomer Separation, Chiral Resolution, and Structure Elucidation Analyses Are the Future of Analytical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz, Anton Brondz
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2014.21002

In 1822, almost 200 years ago, Baron Charles Cagniard de Latour (1777-1859) discovered the critical phenomena or critical state [1] [2]. At that time, it was described as a curiosity. However, it is now used as an advanced extraction and analytical technology in industry and research. Extraction with supercritical fluids (SFs) was welcome from the very beginning. In the present paper, the application to chromatography of the critical phenomena of compressed gases or overheated liquids as supercritical fluids will be discussed. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) received an uneasy welcome, mainly because of the lack of commercially available analytical instruments. Even today, only a small number of industrial companies are manufacturing SFC instrumentation. A very small spectrum of columns is manufactured specially for SFC. SFC is not accepted by Pharmacopeia committees for the analysis of drugs and medical forms to the same extent as Gas Chromatography, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography or even Thin Layer Chromatography. The present status and future perspectives for SFC will be discussed.

Finite-Element Analysis of Parts Stress State of Tight Joint Assembled by Press Fitting  [PDF]
Sinitsyna Vasilya, Sinitsyn Anton
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2014.44019
Abstract: This paper includes descriptions of the stress distribution regularities in the tight joint parts, regularities of the stress state changes in the contact region along coupling length, stress concentration factors, levels of additional stresses caused by press fitting. Distributions of stress intensity, axial stress, contact pressure, tangent stress in parts and in contact zone along coupling length are considered. Calculation results obtained by three approaches: Lame relationships, FEM without considering assembly method, FEM with considering press fitting process are analyzed and compared. The adequacy of research carried out is confirmed.
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