Abstract:
While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].

Abstract:
The dynamics of digitisation and globalisation are synergetically and dialectically changing the ways in which human beings individually and collectively capture, document, share and preserve memories of the past. This paper develops further the concept of the “globital memory field” with a discursive overview of the development of “digital memory” and the significance of zero in the meaning and practice of digital memory. The paper then explains the key elements of this epistemology, with an emphasis on the significance of zero or nothing in relation to two contrasting examples of the medical imaging of the human f tus to the capturing and sending back to Earth by NASA’s Curiosity robot images from the surface of Mars.

Abstract:
For an arbitrary finite Coxeter group W we define the family of Cambrian lattices for W as quotients of the weak order on W with respect to certain lattice congruences. We associate to each Cambrian lattice a complete fan, which we conjecture is the normal fan of a polytope combinatorially isomorphic to the generalized associahedron for W. In types A and B we obtain, by means of a fiber-polytope construction, combinatorial realizations of the Cambrian lattices in terms of triangulations and in terms of permutations. Using this combinatorial information, we prove in types A and B that the Cambrian fans are combinatorially isomorphic to the normal fans of the generalized associahedra and that one of the Cambrian fans is linearly isomorphic to Fomin and Zelevinsky's construction of the normal fan as a "cluster fan." Our construction does not require a crystallographic Coxeter group and therefore suggests a definition, at least on the level of cellular spheres, of a generalized associahedron for any finite Coxeter group. The Tamari lattice is one of the Cambrian lattices of type A, and two "Tamari" lattices in type B are identified and characterized in terms of signed pattern avoidance. We also show that open intervals in Cambrian lattices are either contractible or homotopy equivalent to spheres.

Abstract:
We give a unified explanation of the geometric and algebraic properties of two well-known maps, one from permutations to triangulations, and another from permutations to subsets. Furthermore we give a broad generalization of the maps. Specifically, for any lattice congruence of the weak order on a Coxeter group we construct a complete fan of convex cones with strong properties relative to the corresponding lattice quotient of the weak order. We show that if a family of lattice congruences on the symmetric groups satisfies certain compatibility conditions then the family defines a sub Hopf algebra of the Malvenuto-Reutenauer Hopf algebra of permutations. Such a sub Hopf algebra has a basis which is described by a type of pattern-avoidance. Applying these results, we build the Malvenuto-Reutenauer algebra as the limit of an infinite sequence of smaller algebras, where the second algebra in the sequence is the Hopf algebra of non-commutative symmetric functions. We also associate both a fan and a Hopf algebra to a set of permutations which appears to be equinumerous with the Baxter permutations.

Abstract:
We study the congruence lattice of the poset of regions of a hyperplane arrangement, with particular emphasis on the weak order on a finite Coxeter group. Our starting point is a theorem from a previous paper which gives a geometric description of the poset of join-irreducibles of the congruence lattice of the poset of regions in terms of certain polyhedral decompositions of the hyperplanes. For a finite Coxeter system (W,S) and a subset K of S, let \eta_K:w \mapsto w_K be the projection onto the parabolic subgroup W_K. We show that the fibers of \eta_K constitute the smallest lattice congruence with 1\equiv s for every s\in(S-K). We give an algorithm for determining the congruence lattice of the weak order for any finite Coxeter group and for a finite Coxeter group of type A or B we define a directed graph on subsets or signed subsets such that the transitive closure of the directed graph is the poset of join-irreducibles of the congruence lattice of the weak order.

Abstract:
We establish recursions counting various classes of chains in the noncrossing partition lattice of a finite Coxeter group. The recursions specialize a general relation which is proven uniformly (i.e. without appealing to the classification of finite Coxeter groups) using basic facts about noncrossing partitions. We solve these recursions for each finite Coxeter group in the classification. Among other results, we obtain a simpler proof of a known uniform formula for the number of maximal chains of noncrossing partitions and a new uniform formula for the number of edges in the noncrossing partition lattice. All of our results extend to the m-divisible noncrossing partition lattice.

Abstract:
When W is a finite Coxeter group of classical type (A, B, or D), noncrossing partitions associated to W and compatibility of almost positive roots in the associated root system are known to be modeled by certain planar diagrams. We show how the classical-type constructions of planar diagrams arise uniformly from projections of small W-orbits to the Coxeter plane. When the construction is applied beyond the classical cases, simple criteria are apparent for noncrossing and for compatibility for W of types H_3 and I_2(m) and less simple criteria can be found for compatibility in types E_6, F_4 and H_4. Our construction also explains why simple combinatorial models are elusive in the larger exceptional types.

Abstract:
Given a polyhedral complex C with convex support, we characterize, by a local codimension-2 condition, polyhedral complexes that coarsen C. The proof of the characterization draws upon a surprising general shortcut for showing that a collection of polyhedra is a polyhedral complex and upon a property of hyperplane arrangements which is equivalent, for Coxeter arrangements, to Tits' solution to the Word Problem. The motivating special case, the case where C is a complete fan, generalizes a result of Morton, Pachter, Shiu, Sturmfels, and Wienand that equates convex rank tests with semigraphoids. The proof of the main result also implies a special case of Tietze's convexity theorem. We also prove oriented matroid versions of our results, obtaining, as a byproduct, an oriented matroid version of Tietze's convexity theorem.

Abstract:
We consider, for each exchange matrix B, a category of geometric cluster algebras over B and coefficient specializations between the cluster algebras. The category also depends on an underlying ring R, usually the integers, rationals, or reals. We broaden the definition of geometric cluster algebras slightly over the usual definition and adjust the definition of coefficient specializations accordingly. If the broader category admits a universal object, the universal object is called the cluster algebra over B with universal geometric coefficients, or the universal geometric cluster algebra over B. Constructing universal coefficients is equivalent to finding an R-basis for B (a "mutation-linear" analog of the usual linear-algebraic notion of a basis). Polyhedral geometry plays a key role, through the mutation fan F_B, which we suspect to be an important object beyond its role in constructing universal geometric coefficients. We make the connection between F_B and g-vectors. We construct universal geometric coefficients in rank 2 and in finite type and discuss the construction in affine type.

Abstract:
A universal geometric cluster algebra over an exchange matrix B is a universal object in the category of geometric cluster algebras over B related by coefficient specializations. (Following an earlier paper on universal geometric cluster algebras, we broaden the definition of geometric cluster algebras relative to the definition originally given Fomin and Zelevinsky.) The universal objects are closely related to a fan F_B called the mutation fan for B. In this paper, we consider universal geometric cluster algebras and mutation fans for cluster algebras arising from marked surfaces. We identify two crucial properties of marked surfaces: The Curve Separation Property and the Null Tangle Property. The latter property implies the former. We prove the Curve Separation Property for all marked surfaces except once-punctured surfaces without boundary components, and as a result we obtain a construction of the rational part of F_B for these surfaces. We prove the Null Tangle Property for a smaller family of surfaces, and use it to construct universal geometric coefficients for these surfaces.