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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 41 matches for " Anneleen Verhasselt "
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Conditional Sure Independence Screening
Emre Barut,Jianqing Fan,Anneleen Verhasselt
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: Independence screening is a powerful method for variable selection for `Big Data' when the number of variables is massive. Commonly used independence screening methods are based on marginal correlations or variations of it. In many applications, researchers often have some prior knowledge that a certain set of variables is related to the response. In such a situation, a natural assessment on the relative importance of the other predictors is the conditional contributions of the individual predictors in presence of the known set of variables. This results in conditional sure independence screening (CSIS). Conditioning helps for reducing the false positive and the false negative rates in the variable selection process. In this paper, we propose and study CSIS in the context of generalized linear models. For ultrahigh-dimensional statistical problems, we give conditions under which sure screening is possible and derive an upper bound on the number of selected variables. We also spell out the situation under which CSIS yields model selection consistency. Moreover, we provide two data-driven methods to select the thresholding parameter of conditional screening. The utility of the procedure is illustrated by simulation studies and analysis of two real data sets.
PSYCHOANALYSTS FINDING FORM : (auto)fictional experiments in contemporary psychoanalysis PSYCHOANALYSTS FINDING FORM : (auto)fictional experiments in contemporary psychoanalysis
Anneleen Masschelein
Revue Electronique de Litterature Francaise : RELIEF , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we will look at two important voices in contemporary psychoanalysis, Didier Anzieu and Christopher Bollas, who from a theoretical perspective have tried to devise new genres to express their thinking. The result of this is hybrid texts that com-bine autobiography, essay, case study, fiction, comedy and poetry. In their theoretical work, Anzieu and Bollas have examined creativity and processes of thinking, predomi-nantly from the perspective of object-relations psychoanalysis, although both are known as eclectic thinkers, who do not belong to just one school of psychoanalysis. In this paper, we will look at two important voices in contemporary psychoanalysis, Didier Anzieu and Christopher Bollas, who from a theoretical perspective have tried to devise new genres to express their thinking. The result of this is hybrid texts that com-bine autobiography, essay, case study, fiction, comedy and poetry. In their theoretical work, Anzieu and Bollas have examined creativity and processes of thinking, predomi-nantly from the perspective of object-relations psychoanalysis, although both are known as eclectic thinkers, who do not belong to just one school of psychoanalysis.
Fit for Purpose or Faulty Design? Analysis of the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice on the Legal Protection of Minorities
Anneleen Van Bossuyt
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2007,
Abstract: This paper examines whether the European Court of Justice (ECJ), even in the absence of explicit competencies, could play a role in the creation of a European Union policy promoting the protection of minorities and thus preventing their social exclusion. Comparison is made with the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) because of the cross-fertilisation between the two Courts. The author argues that there is a conspicuous absence in ECJ jurisprudence on the rights of minorities to their culture and identity, whereas the jurisprudence of the ECtHR in this regard is progressive. In contrast, the ECJ takes the fore when it comes to the protection of the linguistic rights of minorities. In conclusion, the author argues that the ECJ is not fit for purpose, but that to speak of a faulty design is taking a step too far.
Does a referral from home to hospital affect satisfaction with childbirth? A cross-national comparison
Wendy Christiaens, Anneleen Gouwy, Piet Bracke
BMC Health Services Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-109
Abstract: Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first two weeks after childbirth, either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 563 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept.Belgian women are more satisfied than Dutch women and home births are more satisfying than hospital births. Women who are referred to the hospital while planning for a home birth are less satisfied than women who planned to give birth in hospital and did. A referral has a greater negative impact on satisfaction for Dutch women.There is no reason to believe Dutch women receive hospital care of lesser quality than Belgian women in case of a referral. Belgian and Dutch attach different meaning to being referred, resulting in a different evaluation of childbirth. In the Dutch maternity care system home births lead to higher satisfaction, but once a referral to the hospital is necessary satisfaction drops and ends up lower than satisfaction with hospital births that were planned in advance. We need to understand more about referral processes and how women experience them.Since the Netherlands is characterised by a unique system encouraging home births, referrals to specialist care are a typically Dutch phenomenon. Recent research found that Dutch women are less satisfied with childbirth than Belgian women [1]. Transfer to the hospital when planning for a home birth could be one of the explanations for this finding. Research on the impact of being referred to specialist care while planning for a home birth is rare, and seldom cross-national. It was our purpose to examine the impact of referrals on childbirth satisfaction in two similar countries. No other region more c
Multiple gene knock-down by a single lentiviral vector expressing an array of short hairpin RNAs
Stove,Veronique; Smits,Kaatje; Naessens,Evelien; Plum,Jean; Verhasselt,Bruno;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: rna interference (rnai), mediated by short double-stranded rnas, is a powerful mechanism for posttranscriptional gene silencing. sustained expression of short hairpin rna (shrna) can be accomplished in mammalian cells by viral delivery systems. using lentiviral constructs, stable gene silencing is established both in dividing and non-dividing cells. targeting one single gene can lead to the development of escape mutants or may be insufficient to silence redundant pathways. therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple genes may be necessary. we have generated a lentiviral vector-based system for expression of multiple shrnas from a single viral vector, which also encodes an egfp reporter protein. we show that knock-down of each single gene from multiple target vectors is achieved at an efficiency comparable to that obtained after transduction using single target viral vectors. in this way, we were able to knock-down several members of the human rho-family gtpases in t cells. double and triple knock-down persisted after multiple passages of the cells. the ability to inhibit two or more genes simultaneously from one single expression vector further widens the application spectrum of rnai, both in functional studies and therapeutic strategies.
Sorafenib-Induced Liver Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Anneleen Van Hootegem,Chris Verslype,Werner Van Steenbergen
Case Reports in Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/941395
Abstract: In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma characterized by vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic disease, Sorafenib is considered treatment of choice. Although mild liver test abnormalities were reported in less than 1% of the patients in the two large randomized, controlled phase III trials, four cases of severe acute Sorafenib-induced hepatitis have been described. One of these four cases died from liver failure. In this paper, a patient with HCC with lung metastases developed high fever and a severe hepatitis that rapidly evolved into liver coma and death, two weeks after the initiation of Sorafenib. Biochemical parameters pointed to a hepatocellular type of injury. Clinical and biochemical presentations were compatible with a drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome such as it has mainly been described for aromatic anticonvulsants, sulphonamides, and allopurinol. We hypothesize that an underlying cytochrome P450 dysfunction with the presence of reactive drug metabolites might lead to this potentially fatal Sorafenib-induced severe liver dysfunction.
Qualitative insights into general practitioners views on polypharmacy
Sibyl Anthierens, Anneleen Tansens, Mirko Petrovic, Thierry Christiaens
BMC Family Practice , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-11-65
Abstract: A qualitative descriptive methodology was used with semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 65 GPs from the region of Aalst, a district of a mixed urban and rural population in Belgium. The aim of the study was to describe the GPs' perspectives on polypharmacy in primary care.GPs acknowledge that polypharmacy is a problem in their older patient population, especially because of the risk of adverse drug reactions, interactions and lowered adherence. GPs mention that difficulties in keeping an overview of the exact medication intake is an important problem caused by polypharmacy. The patients' strong belief in their medication and self-medication are seen as important barriers in reducing the number of drugs taken. Next to these patient related factors, there are some factors related to the prescriber, such as the lack of regular evaluation of the medication schedule by GPs and the involvement of several prescribers, especially in a hospital setting. According to the respondents, prevention and evidence based medicine guidelines often induce polypharmacy.GPs point out that polypharmacy is an important problem in their older patient population. They see an important role for themselves in optimizing drug regimens for their patients. However, they do not have a readymade solution for polypharmacy. The limited set of options for addressing polypharmacy leave GPs feeling powerless to tackle the problem. There is a need for simple GP friendly tools and access to pharmacotherapeutic advice. Future research in this area and interventions seeking to improve prescribing for the elderly will have to focus on practical tools and take into account the GPs' sense of helplessness.Prescribing medication is becoming more difficult and complex. The inherent risk of adverse reactions and interactions rises because of the pharmacological complexity of modern drugs, the ageing population, and the increasing polypharmacy [1]. Polypharmacy can be defined as the concomita
A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases
Olivier Gevaert, Anneleen Daemen, Bart De Moor, Louis Libbrecht
BMC Medical Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-2-69
Abstract: We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures.Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination.Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on
The search for the gene mutations underlying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs: a review
Schroyen Martine,Stinckens Anneleen,Verhelst Roderick,Niewold Theo
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-70
Abstract: Diarrhoea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in neonatal and just weaned piglets and hence for the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all piglets suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. It is assumed that the wild boar was originally ETEC-F4 resistant and that susceptibility towards ETEC arose after domestication. There are different phenotypes in the pig determined by which of the three existing F4 variants (F4ab, F4ac or F4ad) they are susceptible or resistant for. This suggests that several F4 receptors exist, expressed individually or in combination with each other on the brush border of the piglet’s small intestine. As such, the mucin-type glycoproteins (IMTGP) are described as F4ab/ac receptors, while the intestinal neutral glycospingolipid (IGLad) is proposed as an F4ad receptor. GP74 is a putative F4ab receptor. However, the specific genes that encode for the susceptibility are not yet known. In the past decades, linkage analyses revealed that the loci encoding for the receptor(s) for the two most frequent variants F4ab and F4ac were mapped to the 13th chromosome of the pig (Sus scrofa 13, SSC13). After fine mapping, the region of interest was mapped between two microsatellite markers, Sw207 and S0075, and interesting candidate genes surfaced. Numerous SNP analyses and a few expression studies on the three MUC-genes (MUC4, MUC13 and MUC20) and the transferrin receptor gene (TFRC) as well as on some other positional candidate genes have been performed in order to find the causative mutation for the ETEC-F4ab/ac receptor(s). However, until today, the exact mutation causing susceptibility to ETEC-F4 remains unknown.
AMY-tree: an algorithm to use whole genome SNP calling for Y chromosomal phylogenetic applications
Van Geystelen Anneleen,Decorte Ronny,Larmuseau Maarten HD
BMC Genomics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-101
Abstract: Background Due to the rapid progress of next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilities, an explosion of human whole genome data will become available in the coming years. These data can be used to optimize and to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree. Moreover, the exponential growth of known Y chromosomal lineages will require an automatic determination of the phylogenetic position of an individual based on whole genome SNP calling data and an up to date Y chromosomal tree. Results We present an automated approach, ‘AMY-tree’, which is able to determine the phylogenetic position of a Y chromosome using a whole genome SNP profile, independently from the NGS platform and SNP calling program, whereby mistakes in the SNP calling or phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree are taken into account. Moreover, AMY-tree indicates ambiguities within the present phylogenetic tree and points out new Y-SNPs which may be phylogenetically relevant. The AMY-tree software package was validated successfully on 118 whole genome SNP profiles of 109 males with different origins. Moreover, support was found for an unknown recurrent mutation, wrong reported mutation conversions and a large amount of new interesting Y-SNPs. Conclusions Therefore, AMY-tree is a useful tool to determine the Y lineage of a sample based on SNP calling, to identify Y-SNPs with yet unknown phylogenetic position and to optimize the Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree in the future. AMY-tree will not add lineages to the existing phylogenetic tree of the Y-chromosome but it is the first step to analyse whole genome SNP profiles in a phylogenetic framework.
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