Abstract:
Previous research has highlighted the value of technology to enhance learning. However, digital inclusion research has argued that many issues such as skills, access, usability and choice impact on the effectiveness of technology to enhance learning. The findings in this paper add to the debate by highlighting the importance of value and context. In particular, the value that institutions and individuals place on the role of further and higher distance learning in a prison can affect technology-enhanced learning in that context. This research identified that despite good IT skills and improved technologies, prison learners’ access and use of technology is hampered by conflicting priorities amongst the multiple organisations controlling prisoner activities. This can lead to a prison in which menial work is valued far higher than learning. Technology-enhanced distance learning, perceived by many to be a lifeline in a desolate environment, is heavily restricted in such prisons. The situation is thought to be deteriorating as the number of organisations involved increases and the Government's plans for “working” prisons gather pace.

Abstract:
A strong, almost exclusive tendency for soldiers to occupy the gall section nearest to the opening was detected. In addition, it was found that the most reproductively valuable morphs, the mature gall reproductives and the adult gall emigrants, tended to locate themselves in the gall section furthest from the opening.The defensive morphs are thus ideally placed at the point most vulnerable to predation while the morphs most directly responsible for the colony's fitness are located in the safest area of the nest. Furthermore, the propensity for soldiers alone to be located at the opening provides excellent supporting evidence that they are also the agents of gall cleaning and repair. These observations demonstrate that relatively high levels of spatial complexity can occur within the galling colonies of the social aphids, just as they occur within the advanced societies of other insect orders.In many aphid societies, in addition to the renowned phenomenon of defence by morphologically specialised or unspecialised individuals, a broad range of social tasks can be found. Social aphids may clean their nests of honeydew and detritus [1-4], undertake risky migration to other colonies [5,6], and repair damage to the plant galls they induce to serve as their nests. However, the clustering and specialised placement of castes that is a celebrated adaptive phenomenon of better-studied social insects such as the ants [7,8] and bees [9] is currently unknown in the social aphids. It is nevertheless clear that, because the number of soldiers in an aphid colony may scale more accurately with gall surface area than with the number of non-soldiers needing defence [10], gall structure can be of critical importance to the evolution of aphid life histories. Detection of any non-random distribution of castes within aphid galls would indicate a greater level of social complexity than that which is currently appreciated.Spatial distributions which involve certain aphid morphs clustering ne

Abstract:
Both global education and international education are movements designedto promote the concepts of internationalism and global community innational education systems, but with different histories. While the former, agrassroots K-12 movement, has struggled to make headway against theforces of neoliberalism, the latter has thrived in a market-driven era inwhich revenue from international student mobility has offset decliningpublic funding of higher education in many developed countries. Currenttrends in the internationalisation of higher education have resulted inincreasing commercialisation and intensive competition for internationalstudents, fuelled by world rankings of elite universities. Tensions existbetween these trends and the more altruistic goals of internationaleducation proclaimed in institutional mission statements and governmentpolicies. An analytical matrix is offered as a tool with which highereducation institutions can map their internationalisation activities andassess the extent to which they match their stated policies and missions.While the rhetoric of international education purports to promote theconcept of a global community, the article suggests this claim may beillusory.

Abstract:
Citing the need to choose a broader vision than that provided by the plethora of citizenship education models currently in circulation, Pike challenges the fundament of GCE with a view to exposing some tensions and difficulties inherent in its implementation within schools. Following an exploration of six such tensions and difficulties, many of which are central to GCE, Pike suggests possible dimensions of an ethos of global citizenship – a set of moral principles and codes of conduct – that is global in scope all the while recognizing that citizenship will continue, for the foreseeable future, to be national in practice.

Abstract:
In 1991, Persi Diaconis and Daniel Stroock obtained two canonical path bounds on the second largest eigenvalue for simple random walk on a connected graph, the Poincar\'e and Cheeger bounds, and they raised the question as to whether the Poincar\'e bound is always superior. In this paper, we present some background on these issues, provide an example where Cheeger beats Poincar\'e, establish some sufficient conditions on the canonical paths for the Poincar\'e bound to triumph, and show that there is always a choice of paths for which this happens.

Abstract:
The germ of an analytic set $(X,p)$ in $\mathbb{C}^n$ has an associated $\mathscr{O}_{\mathbb{C}^n,p}$-module $\mathrm{Der}(-\log X)$ of `logarithmic vector fields', the ambient germs of holomorphic vector fields tangent to the smooth locus of $X$. For a module $L\subseteq \mathrm{Der}(-\log X)$ let $I_k(L)$ be the ideal generated by the $k\times k$ minors of a matrix of generators for $L$; these are the Fitting ideals of $\mathrm{Der}_{\mathbb{C}^n,p}/L$. We aim to: (i) find sufficient conditions on $\{I_k(L)\}$ to prove $L=\mathrm{Der}(-\log X)$; (ii) identify $\{I_k(\mathrm{Der}(-\log X))\}$, to provide a necessary condition for equality; and (iii) provide a geometric interpretation of these ideals. Even for $(X,p)$ smooth, an example shows that Fitting ideals alone are insufficient to prove equality, although we give a different criterion. Using (ii) and (iii) in the smooth case, we give partial answers to (ii) and (iii) for arbitrary $(X,p)$. When $(X,p)$ is a hypersurface, we give sufficient algebraic or geometric conditions for the reflexive hull of $L$ to equal $\mathrm{Der}(-\log X)$; for $L$ reflexive, this answers (i) and generalizes criteria of Saito for free divisors and Brion for linear free divisors.

Abstract:
We study a family of three-dimensional Lie algebras $L_\mu$ that depend on a continuous parameter $\mu$. We introduce certain quivers, which we denote by $Q_{m,n}$ $(m,n \in \mathbb{Z})$ and $Q_{\infty \times \infty}$, and prove that idempotented versions of the enveloping algebras of the Lie algebras $L_{\mu}$ are isomorphic to the path algebras of these quivers modulo certain ideals in the case that $\mu$ is rational and non-rational, respectively. We then show how the representation theory of the quivers $Q_{m,n}$ and $Q_{\infty\times\infty}$ can be related to the representation theory of quivers of affine type $A$, and use this relationship to study representations of the Lie algebras $L_\mu$. In particular, though it is known that the Lie algebras $L_\mu$ are of wild representation type, we show that if we impose certain restrictions on weight decompositions, we obtain full subcategories of the category of representations of $L_\mu$ that are of finite or tame representation type.

Abstract:
A 'prehomogeneous vector space' is a rational representation $\rho:G\to\mathrm{GL}(V)$ of a connected complex linear algebraic group $G$ that has a Zariski open orbit $\Omega\subset V$. Mikio Sato showed that the hypersurface components of $D:=V\setminus \Omega$ are related to the rational characters $H\to\mathrm{GL}(\mathbb{C})$ of $H$, an algebraic abelian quotient of $G$. Mimicking this work, we investigate the 'additive functions' of $H$, the homomorphisms $\Phi:H\to (\mathbb{C},+)$. Each such $\Phi$ is related to an 'additive relative invariant', a rational function $h$ on $V$ such that $h\circ \rho(g)-h=\Phi(g)$ on $\Omega$ for all $g\in G$. Such an $h$ is homogeneous of degree $0$, and helps describe the behavior of certain subsets of $D$ under the $G$--action. For those prehomogeneous vector spaces with $D$ a type of hypersurface called a linear free divisor, we prove there are no nontrivial additive functions of $H$, and hence $H$ is an algebraic torus. From this we gain insight into the structure of such representations and prove that the number of irreducible components of $D$ equals the dimension of the abelianization of $G$. For some special cases ($G$ abelian, reductive, or solvable, or $D$ irreducible) we simplify proofs of existing results. We also examine the homotopy groups of $V\setminus D$.

Abstract:
Fetal testis steroidogenesis plays an important role in the reproductive development of the male fetus. While regulators of certain aspects of steroidogenesis are known, the initial driver of steroidogenesis in the human and rodent fetal testis is unclear. Through comparative analysis of rodent fetal testis microarray datasets, 54 candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific genes were identified. Fetal mouse testis interstitial expression of a subset of these genes with unknown expression (Crhr1, Gramd1b, Itih5, Vgll3, and Vsnl1) was verified by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Among the candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific factors, three receptors (CRHR1, PRLR, and PROKR2) were tested for a steroidogenic function using ex vivo fetal testes treated with receptor agonists (CRH, PRL, and PROK2). While PRL and PROK2 had no effect, CRH, at low (approximately 1 to 10) nM concentration, increased expression of the steroidogenic genes Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Scarb1, and Star in GD15 mouse and GD17 rat testes, and in conjunction, testosterone production was increased. Exposure of GD15 fetal mouse testis to a specific CRHR1 antagonist blunted the CRH-induced steroidogenic gene expression and testosterone responses. Similar to ex vivo rodent fetal testes, ≥10 nM CRH exposure of MA-10 Leydig cells increased steroidogenic pathway mRNA and progesterone levels, showing CRH can enhance steroidogenesis by directly targeting Leydig cells. Crh mRNA expression was observed in rodent fetal hypothalamus, and CRH peptide was detected in rodent amniotic fluid. Together, these data provide a resource for discovering factors controlling fetal Leydig cell biology and suggest that CRHR1 activation by CRH stimulates rat and mouse fetal Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vivo.

Abstract:
It has been brought to our attention by an official faculty committee at Colorado State University that portions of the data of this article [1] are not derived from experimental activities. In particular, the ICP-AES data in Table 1 for Compound 6, and the cycle data plotted at cycle 15 and greater in Figure 9b represent projected rather than actual data. After confirming this case with the authors, we have determined that indeed this manuscript clearly violates our editorial policy as well as the generally accepted ethics of scientific publication. Consequently, the Editorial Team and Publisher have determined that it should be retracted. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.