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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15292 matches for " Anna Sj?holm "
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Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity of People with Stroke in Rehabilitation Hospitals
Anna Sjholm,Monica Skarin,Leonid Churilov,Michael Nilsson,Julie Bernhardt,Thomas Lindén
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/591897
Abstract: Background. Sedentary behaviour is associated with health risks, independent of physical activity. This study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity among stroke survivors in rehabilitation hospitals. Methods. Stroke survivors admitted to four Swedish hospital-based rehabilitation units were recruited ≥7 days since stroke onset and their activity was measured using behavioural mapping. Sedentary behaviour was defined as lying down or sitting supported. Results. 104 patients were observed (53% men). Participants spent an average of 74% (standard deviation, SD 21%) of the observed day in sedentary activities. Continuous sedentary bouts of ≥1 hour represented 44% (SD 32%) of the observed day. A higher proportion (30%, SD 7%) of participants were physically active between 9:00 AM and 12:30 PM, compared to the rest of the observed day (23%, SD 6%, ). Patients had higher odds of being physically active in the hall (odds ratio, OR 1.7, ) than in the therapy area. Conclusions. The time stroke survivors spend in stroke rehabilitation units may not be used in the most efficient way to promote maximal recovery. Interventions to promote reduced sedentary time could help improve outcome and these should be tested in clinical trials. 1. Introduction Sedentary behaviour activities with an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 metabolic equivalent units [1, 2], such as lying down or sitting) [3] is associated with a variety of health risks, regardless of physical activity levels and other traditional risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular disease [4, 5], type 2 diabetes [6], metabolic syndrome [7], and breast cancer [8] are a few diseases connected to sedentary behaviour, which further increases all-cause mortality [4, 5, 9, 10]. Each additional hour spent sedentary has been proposed to be associated with a progressive rise in mortality risk [4]. It is, however, not only the total amount of sedentary time which seems to be important, but also the way in which it is accumulated. Prolonged bouts of time in sedentary activities (such as sitting down) have been shown to be particularly harmful, with relative benefits noted from regular brief periods of standing or walking [11]. While it is well established that patients in stroke rehabilitation are very inactive [12], sedentary behaviour, per se, is not commonly investigated [13]. In the hospital setting, a recent review [12] of 24 studies demonstrated that stroke survivors on average are involved in nontherapeutic or low physical activity for as much as 76% of the
Endogenous Acute Phase Serum Amyloid A Lacks Pro-Inflammatory Activity, Contrasting the Two Recombinant Variants That Activate Human Neutrophils through Different Receptors
Karin Christenson,Lena Bj?rkman,Sofie Ahlin,Maja Olsson,Kajsa Sjholm,Anna Karlsson,Johan Bylund
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00092
Abstract: Most notable among the acute phase proteins is serum amyloid A (SAA), levels of which can increase 1000-fold during infections, aseptic inflammation, and/or trauma. Chronically elevated SAA levels are associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions, including obesity and rheumatic diseases. Using a recombinant hybrid of the two human SAA isoforms (SAA1 and 2) that does not exist in vivo, numerous in vitro studies have given rise to the notion that acute phase SAA is a pro-inflammatory molecule with cytokine-like properties. It is however unclear whether endogenous acute phase SAA per se mediates pro-inflammatory effects. We tested this in samples from patients with inflammatory arthritis and in a transgenic mouse model that expresses human SAA1. Endogenous human SAA did not drive production of pro-inflammatory IL-8/KC in either of these settings. Human neutrophils derived from arthritis patients displayed no signs of activation, despite being exposed to severely elevated SAA levels in circulation, and SAA-rich sera also failed to activate cells in vitro. In contrast, two recombinant SAA variants (the hybrid SAA and SAA1) both activated human neutrophils, inducing L-selectin shedding, production of reactive oxygen species, and production of IL-8. The hybrid SAA was approximately 100-fold more potent than recombinant SAA1. Recombinant hybrid SAA and SAA1 activated neutrophils through different receptors, with recombinant SAA1 being a ligand for formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). We conclude that even though recombinant SAAs can be valuable tools for studying neutrophil activation, they do not reflect the nature of the endogenous protein.
Liraglutide Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Overcoming Unmet Needs
?ke Sjholm
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3030764
Abstract: Although advances have been achieved in the management of type 2 diabetes, current treatment options for patients with this disease still fail to address disease progression, glycaemic control remains suboptimal and therapies are often associated with weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Thus, new antidiabetes therapies are being sought. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones that have been the recent focus of research. The physiological action of GLP-1, in particular, has demonstrated its potential in addressing the therapeutic needs of patients with type 2 diabetes. To exploit this action, liraglutide, a human GLP-1 analogue that shares 97% of its amino acid sequence identity with native GLP-1, has been developed. In a recent phase 3 trial programme (LEAD, Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes), treatment with liraglutide was associated with substantial improvements in glycaemic control and low risk of hypoglycaemia. In addition, reductions in weight and systolic blood pressure were reported. There is also an indication that liraglutide is capable of improving β-cell function and increasing β-cell mass. Thus, liraglutide may overcome the limitations with current therapies and help to address the unmet clinical needs of patients with type 2 diabetes.
The Ambiguity of Modern Sculpture
Jessica Sjholm Skrubbe
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 2007,
The Ambiguity of Modern Sculpture
Jessica Sjholm Skrubbe
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 2007,
Long-Term Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Liver Enzymes in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study
Maria Antonella Burza, Stefano Romeo, Anna Kotronen, Per-Arne Svensson, Kajsa Sjholm, Jarl S. Torgerson, Anna-Karin Lindroos, Lars Sj?str?m, Lena M. S. Carlsson, Markku Peltonen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060495
Abstract: Background and Aim Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and weight loss is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Bariatric surgery is effective in obtaining and maintaining weight loss. Aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on transaminase levels in obese individuals. Methods The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective controlled intervention study designed to compare the long-term effects of bariatric surgery and usual care in obese subjects. A total of 3,570 obese participants with no excess of alcohol consumption at baseline (1,795 and 1,775 in the control and surgery group, respectively) were included in the analyses. Changes in transaminase levels during follow-up were compared in the surgery and control groups. Results Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels at 2- and 10- year follow up. The reduction in ALT levels was proportional to the degree of weight loss. Both the incidence of and the remission from high transaminase levels were more favorable in the surgery group compared to the control group. Similarly, the prevalence of ALT/AST ratio <1 was lower in the surgery compared to the control group at both 2- and 10-year follow up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term benefit in obese individuals.
Adipose Tissue-Derived Human Serum Amyloid A Does Not Affect Atherosclerotic Lesion Area in hSAA1+/?/ApoE?/? Mice
Sofie Ahlin, Maja Olsson, Anna S. Wilhelmson, Kristina Sk?lén, Jan Borén, Lena M. S. Carlsson, Per-Arne Svensson, Kajsa Sjholm
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095468
Abstract: Chronically elevated serum levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether SAA is directly involved in atherosclerosis development is still not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose tissue-derived human SAA on atherosclerosis in mice. hSAA1+/? transgenic mice (hSAA1 mice) with a specific expression of human SAA1 in adipose tissue were bred with ApoE-deficient mice. The hSAA1 mice and their wild type (wt) littermates were fed normal chow for 35 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood, gonadal adipose tissue and aortas were collected. Plasma levels of SAA, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were analyzed in the aortic arch, the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta in en face preparations of aorta stained with Sudan IV. The human SAA protein was present in plasma from hSAA1 mice but undetectable in wt mice. Similar plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were observed in hSAA1 mice and their wt controls. There were no differences in atherosclerotic lesion areas in any sections of the aorta in hSAA1 mice compared to wt mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that adipose tissue-derived human SAA does not influence atherosclerosis development in mice.
Angular Momentum of Electromagnetic Radiation. Fundamental physics applied to the radio domain for innovative studies of space and development of new concepts in wireless communications
Johan Sjholm,Kristoffer Palmer
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In this diploma thesis we study the characteristics of electromagnetic fields carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) by analyzing and utilizing results achieved in optics and then apply them to the radio domain to enable innovative radio studies of space and the development of new concepts in wireless communications. With the recent advent of fast digital converters it has become possible, over a wide radio frequency range, to manipulate not only the modulation properties of any given signal carried by a radio beam, but also the physical field vectors which make up the radio beam itself. Drawing inferences from results obtained in optics and quantum communication research during the past 10-15 years, we extract the core information about fields carrying orbital angular momentum. We show that with this information it is possible to design an array of antennas which, together with digital receivers/transmitters, can readily produce, under full software control, a radio beam that carries electromagnetic orbital angular momentum, a classical electrodynamics quantity known for a century but so far preciously little utilized in radio, if at all. This electromagnetic field is then optimized with the help of various antenna array techniques to improve the radio vector field qualities. By explicit numerical solution of the Maxwell equations from first principles, using a de facto industrial standard antenna software package, we show that the field indeed carries orbital angular momentum, and give a hint on how to detect and measure orbital angular momentum in radio beams. Finally, we discuss and give an explanation of what this can be used for and what the future might bring in this area.
Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis
Nils G Holm, Anna Neubeck
Geochemical Transactions , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-10-9
Abstract: Geochemically plausible abiotic synthesis pathways and concentration mechanisms for nitrogen-containing molecules must eventually be found since nitrogen-based life is likely to have existed on Earth from early Archean onwards [1]. High ammonium contents (54-95 ppm) have been found in authigenic clays of the Isua supracrustal rocks of Western Greenland, suggesting that clays were major sinks of NH4+ or other nitrogen compounds on the Earth's surface already at 3800 Ma [2]. Ward and Brownlee have argued that plate tectonics is necessary for the origin of life on terrestrial planets and have listed a number of reasons in support of their opinion [3]. However, one argument that they have never mentioned is the connection between plate tectonics, hydrothermal geochemistry and reduction of simple carbon and nitrogen compounds suitable for abiotic organic chemistry. In our opinion, the best location where such processes could occur would be at convergent margins during the early phases of subduction of oceanic plates.Incipient alteration of mafic volcanic rocks (basalt; 45-52% SiO2) entails the palagonitization of glass with concomitant crystallization of authigenic layer silicates (e.g. smectites, double layer hydroxides) and zeolites [4-6]. Zeolites like phillipsite coexist with smectite and almost always with mafic glass [7]. The term palagonite is normally used in reference to a bulk sample of metabasite which contains a mixture of palagonitized glass, authigenic minerals like smectite, corrensite, zeolites, carbonates and Fe-Ti oxides and phosphates, as well as primary minerals like plagioclase feldspars, clinopyroxene and olivine [4]. Minerals with expanding-contracting sheet structures like double layer hydroxides (DLH) are capable of accommodating molecules of virtually any size and clamping the layer of sorbed reactant ions, and are found to have particularly high catalytic activity [1]. DLH may be formed by replacing a fraction of the divalent Mg2+ in single lay
Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique
Telma Magaia, Amália Uamusse, Ingegerd Sj holm and Kerstin Skog
SpringerPlus , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-88
Abstract: The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.
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