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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13699 matches for " Anna Ohman "
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A pilot study, a specially designed pillow may prevent developmental plagiocephaly by reducing pressure from the infant head  [PDF]
Anna Ohman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2006
Abstract:

Developmental plagiocephaly (DP) has been an increasing problem since the successful “back to sleep campaign”. The referrals for DP have increased by >400% during the years 2004 to 2008. Many infants spend less time in the prone position nowadays and some of the risk factors for DP are as follows: less than 3 times per day for the tummy time, torticollis and slow achievement of motor milestones. There is a need for better information to the parents but also for other strategies to prevent DP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a special pillow and thus to reduce pressure on the infant head. Method: infants aged zero to two months were included in the study. They were randomized to either intervention group or control group. Head shape was investigated on two occasions, on the second occasion motor development, mobility and muscle function of the neck were also investigated. The parents were asked about tummy time and sleep position. All infants were investigated by the same physical therapist, blinded to group belonging. Result: seven infants had CVAI >3.5 on the last assessment, five of these had not used any method to reduce pressure. Fishers exact test showed a tendency where infants with reduced pressure on the head had less DP (P 0.08). Paired t test showed significant decrease in CVAI for the infants who had had reduced pressure on the head (P 0.01). Among these infants the CVAI was zero for 47% in the last assessment. For the infants who had not had a reduction of pressure on the head, there was no indication of a decrease of CVAI (P 0.45), and only 12% of these infants had a CVAI that was zero in the last assessment. Conclusion: this pilot study shows that a specially designed pillow may prevent DP in young infants. However, a larger sample is needed to confirm or disprove this. The study is planned to go on until there are 200 participants.

Mobile phone quality vs. Direct quality: How the presentation format affects earwitness identification accuracy.
Lisa Ohman,Anders Eriksson,Par Anders Granhag
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context , 2010,
Abstract: The present study aimed to gain insight into the effect of mobile phone quality on voice identification using an ecologically realistic design. A total of 165 participants were exposed to an unfamiliar voice, either directly recorded or mobile phone recorded, for 40 seconds. After a two week delay, they were asked to identify the target-voice in a 7 voice target-present line-up. We used a between subjects design, where half of the subjects were exposed to a directly recorded line-up, and the other half to a mobile phone recorded line-up. Data analysis did not show any significant effect of presentation format or line-up format. These results suggest that the detrimental effect on voice recognition suggested by the poorer sound quality of mobile phone recordings is minimal. They also indicate that there is no benefit from conducting a mobile phone recorded line-up, if the voice is originally heard over a mobile phone. More research is needed, however, before definitive conclusions may be drawn. The overall accuracy for correct identifications was 12.7% which is expected by chance. Further, one particular foil attracted 54% of all false identifications. Future research should focus on explaining why earwitnesses perform so poorly and develop methods to improve identification accuracy.
Time-Location Patterns of a Population Living in an Air Pollution Hotspot
Xiangmei (May) Wu,Zhihua (Tina) Fan,Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/625461
Abstract: This study characterized the time-location pattern of 107 residents living in air pollution hotspots, the Waterfront South and Copewood/Davis Streets communities in Camden, NJ. Most residents in the two communities are minority and impoverished individuals. Results showed that employment status played the fundamental role in determining time-location patterns of this study population, and the variations of time-location pattern by season and by day-type were partially attributed to employment status. Compared to the National Human Activity Pattern Survey, the Camden cohort spent significantly more time outdoors (3.8 hours versus 1.8 hours) and less time indoors (19.4 hours versus 20.9 hours) than the general US population, indicating a higher risk of exposure to ambient air pollution for the Camden cohort. The findings of the study are important for understanding exposure routes and sources for the socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroup and ultimately help develop effective strategies to reduce community exposure to ambient air pollution in “hotspots”.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase Provides an Escape from Phagocytosis by Degrading the Pulmonary Surfactant Protein-A
Zhizhou Kuang, Yonghua Hao, Brent E. Walling, Jayme L. Jeffries, Dennis E. Ohman, Gee W. Lau
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027091
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes both acute pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and chronic lung infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis and other bronchiectasis. Over 75% of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa secrete elastase B (LasB), an elastolytic metalloproteinase that is encoded by the lasB gene. Previously, in vitro studies have demonstrated that LasB degrades a number of components in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These include surfactant proteins, antibacterial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and immunoglobulins. However, the contribution of LasB to lung infection by P. aeruginosa and to inactivation of pulmonary innate immunity in vivo needs more clarification. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying enhanced clearance of the ΔlasB mutant in mouse lungs. The ΔlasB mutant was attenuated in virulence when compared to the wild-type strain PAO1 during lung infection in SP-A+/+ mice. However, the ΔlasB mutant was as virulent as PAO1 in the lungs of SP-A-/- mice. Detailed analysis showed that the ΔlasB mutant was more susceptible to SP-A-mediated opsonization but not membrane permeabilization. In vitro and in vivo phagocytosis experiments revealed that SP-A augmented the phagocytosis of ΔlasB mutant bacteria more efficiently than the isogenic wild-type PAO1. The ΔlasB mutant was found to have a severely reduced ability to degrade SP-A, consequently making it unable to evade opsonization by the collectin during phagocytosis. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa LasB protects against SP-A-mediated opsonization by degrading the collectin.
ICU stay promotes enrichment and dissemination of multi-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal clones
C Agvald-Ohman, C Edlund, B Lund, J Struwe, G Hedin, H Hjelmqvist
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3080
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to study the impact of the patient's length of ICU stay on the resistance patterns, clonal diversity and dissemination of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) within and between patients.Two groups of patients were studied, including 20 consecutive patients sampled within 2 hours from admission (shortstayers, SS), and all patients treated for at least 5 days at the ICU (longstayers, LS), available for sampling every second week (n = 23). Sampling was performed from five sites: oropharynx, nares, neck, axilla and perineum. A total of 868 CoNS isolates deriving from LS patients and 403 isolates from SS patients were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal diversity and dissemination within and between patients. All 1271 CoNS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and subtyped to the clonal level according to their phenotype with the PhenePlate? (PhP) system using PhP-CS plates (PhPlate Microplate Techniques AB, Stockholm, Sweden) designed for typing CoNS. The clonal relationship between CoNS isolates clustered as one phenotype isolated from at least two patients was further confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.The highest resistance rates were seen for oxacillin and ciprofloxacin, being 92% and 83%, respectively. LS were at significantly higher risk of being colonized with CoNS isolates resistant against oxacillin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin as well as with multi-resistant strains. Genotyping revealed 16 clones that colonized more than one patient. One of the clones was isolated from 10 individuals, including two SS patients, indicating an epidemic strain.Prolonged ICU stay was significantly correlated to decreased clonal diversity, increased endogenous dissemination of resistant strains and cross-transmission. The results emphasize the importance of barrier treatment and other hygienic measures, especially in this vulnerable group of patients.
Implications of troponin testing in clinical medicine
Britta U Goldmann, Robert H Christenson, Christian W Hamm, Thomas Meinertz, E Magnus Ohman
Trials , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cvm-2-2-075
Abstract: Ischaemic heart disease comprises clinical conditions that range from silent ischaemia to acute MI. Along with the patient history, physical examination and electrocardiography, measurement of biochemical markers is important in assessing ischaemic heart disease. The 'gold standard' in detecting myocardial necrosis has been an elevated level of CK-MB (the cardiac-specific isoform of CK). This measure satisfies the criteria for a diagnosis of MI (Table 1), as proposed by the World Health Organization and later extended for the Monitoring Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study [1]. New cardiac markers, however, with superior specificity and sensitivity to detect myocardial damage and the potential to estimate the prognosis of patients with ischaemic myocardial necrosis, have challenged the diagnostic ability of CK-MB. Furthermore, elevated CK-MB may not detect all myocardial necrosis, because autopsies of patients who died suddenly after severe or silent episodes of ischaemia have shown micronecrosis that was not reflected in routine enzyme measures [2,3]. In addition, myocardial biopsies taken during coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with unstable angina have shown the presence of platelet aggregates in small coronary vessels, with associated myocardial necrosis [4].New cardiac markers, such as troponins T, I and C, are subunits of the thin filament-associated troponin-tropomyosin complex, which is involved in regulating muscle contraction. Genetic differences in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue have allowed development of monoclonal antibodies that are specific for release of cardiac troponins T and I during myocardial injury [5,6]. Sporadic reports [7,8] confirmed the ability of troponins to identify micronecrotic pathology, despite exclusion of MI on conventional grounds. Accordingly the new definition of MI reported in September 2000 [9] introduced cardiac troponins into daily routine clinical practice, allowing for highly accurate, sensitive and specif
The use of a high intensity neutrino beam from the ESS proton linac for measurement of neutrino CP violation and mass hierarchy
E. Baussan,M. Dracos,T. Ekelof,E. Fernandez Martinez,H. Ohman,N. Vassilopoulos
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: It is proposed to complement the ESS proton linac with equipment that would enable the production, concurrently with the production of the planned ESS beam used for neutron production, of a 5 MW beam of 10$^{23}$ 2.5 GeV protons per year in microsecond short pulses to produce a neutrino Super Beam, and to install a megaton underground water Cherenkov detector in a mine to detect $\nu_e$ appearance in the produced $\nu_\mu$ beam. Results are presented of preliminary calculations of the sensitivity to neutrino CP violation and the mass hierarchy as a function of the neutrino baseline. The results indicate that, with 8 years of data taking with an antineutrino beam and 2 years with a neutrino beam and a baseline distance of around 400 km, CP violation could be discovered at 5 $\sigma$ (3 $\sigma$) confidence level in 48% (73%) of the total CP violation angular range. With the same baseline, the neutrino mass hierarchy could be determined at 3 $\sigma$ level over most of the total CP violation angular range. There are several underground mines with a depth of more than 1000 m, which could be used for the creation of the underground site for the neutrino detector and which are situated within or near the optimal baseline range.
Interactive Vision and Experimental Traditions: How to Frame the Relationship  [PDF]
Anna Estany
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.32046
Abstract: In recent decades, the cognitive view has had a considerable impact on the philosophy of science, and two reasons can for this be identified. First, philosophers have increasingly tended towards naturalistic approaches, as opposed to proposals that are more a priori. Second, the cognitive sciences underwent considerable development in the second half of the twentieth century. Motivated by the cognitive view in the philosophy of science, and within a naturalistic framework, the aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between two pairs of views. On the one hand, I consider the theoretical and experimental traditions; and on the other, I examine the views of pure and interactive vision. The two pairs belong to two independent debates; one in the philosophy of science (theoretical vs. experimental traditions) and the other in cognitive psychology (pure vs. interactive vision). Theoretical traditions correspond to a conception of science according to which the goal of scientific practice is to formulate theories that represent the world, and in them experiments play only an instrumental role that is always subsidiary to theory. The model of science promoted in the program of logical empiricism is a good example of such a tradition. Experimental traditions, in contrast, challenge that conception of science by attributing a more important role to experimentation, which is said to provide its own path to knowledge.
Models, AmI-Creator and A-Methodology for Ambient Intelligence Environments  [PDF]
Anna Chambers
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74030
Abstract:

The current paper introduces an approach to a development of Ambient Intelligence domain-based software systems from scratch. The presented approach is based on models. The paper also presents the domain-related models expressing different levels of abstractions and stages of the development. The approach refers to a Model-Driven Development of Ambient Intelligence which was suggested at AmI-07-Ambient Intelligence conference. The approach is presented as a standard with its feasible realization. It starts from modeling of a content of the future AmI-dedicated software system and concludes by mapping the graphical concepts into a final code. A process proving feasibility and correctness of the approach is provided through a dedicated research methodology. Its process comprises an identification of needs in a speedy development of the systems. It is followed by studying of the currently available techniques capable of supporting the development and an experimenting with them. It continues by finding a solution, verified by its validation and concludes by an identification of the further perspectives. The developed approach presents a common way of a communication amongst stakeholders participating in creating of AmI-based environments. Such communication involves the notations of AmI-Creator—a Domain-Specific Language of Ambient Intelligence domain. Every part of DSL corresponds to a demonstration of A-methodology expressing a step-by-step guidance for the development. The methodology comprises two parts dedicated to providing semantics for DSL through studying of Ambient Intelligence domain ontology; and development of actual environments. A validity of the working proposition is confirmed by three examples. The further challenges refer to an extension of the presented work by other frameworks and expansion to a development of different domains with complex organizations.

A specially designed pillow may be used as treatment for young infants with developmental plagiocephaly  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512280
Abstract:

Developmental plagiocephaly has increased since the back to sleep campaign and is nowadays a rather common condition in infants. Prevention is the best way to decrease this problem, therefore, tools for treatment are needed. This case description of two children who dropped out from a study of a specially designed pillow indicates that the Mimos pillow may work as the treatment in young infants with developmental plagiocephaly.

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