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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84774 matches for " Anna Maria Micha?owska-Kaczmarczyk "
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Comparative Balancing of Non-Redox and Redox Electrolytic Systems and Its Consequences  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A1006
Abstract: In this paper, it is proved that linear combination 2·f(O) - f(H) of elemental balances: f(O) for O and f(H) for H is linearly independent on charge and elemental/core balances for all redox systems of any degree of complexity; it is the primary form of the Generalized Electron Balance (GEB), , considered as the Approach II to GEB. The Approach II is equivalent to the Approach I based on the principle of common pool of electrons. Both Approaches are illustrated on an example of titration of acidified (H2SO4) solution of H2C2O4 with KMnO4. It is also stated, on an example of titration of the same solution with NaOH, that 2·f(O) - f(H) is a linear combination of charge and elemental/core balances, i.e. it is not an independent balance when related to the non-redox system. These properties of 2·f(O) - f(H) can be extended on redox and non-redox systems, of any degree of complexity,
Simplex Optimization and Its Applicability for Solving Analytical Problems  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27080
Abstract:

Formulation of the simplex matrix referred to n-D space, is presented in terms of the scalar product of vectors, known from elementary algebra. The principles of a simplex optimization procedure are presented on a simple example, with use of a target function taken as a criterion of optimization, where accuracy and precision are treated equally in searching optimal conditions of a gravimetric analysis. 

Compact Formulation of Redox Systems According to GATES/GEB Principles  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2014.42006
Abstract:

The Generalized Electron Balance (GEB), together with charge balance and concentration balances, completes the set of equations needed for resolution of electrolytic redox systems. The general formulae for GEB were obtained according to Approach II to GEB, i.e., on the basis of the equation 2?f(O) ? f(H) obtained from elemental balances: f(H) for H, and f(O) for O. Equivalency of the Approach II and the Approach I to GEB was proved for an aqueous solution and a binary-solvent system. On this basis, a compact form of GEB was derived.

Generalized Electron Balance for Dynamic Redox Systems in Mixed-Solvent Media  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2014.44014
Abstract: A complex example of electrolytic redox system involving 47 species, 3 electron-active elements and five (3 am-phiprotic + 2 aprotic) co-solvents, is presented. Mixed solvates of the species thus formed are admitted in the system considered. It is proved that the Generalized Electron Balance (GEB) in its simplest form obtained according to the Approach II to GEB is identical with the one obtained for aqueous media and binary-solvent system, and is equivalent to the Approach I to GEB.
General Relation Valid for Electrolytic Systems  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.54009
Abstract: A simple general relation P = Q + R + 1 between the number P of kinds of species, the number Q of charge and elemental/core balances and the number R of independent equilibrium constants is deduced, and its validity is confirmed for non-redox and redox electrolytic systems, of different degree of complexity.
Disproportionation Reactions of HIO and NaIO in Static and Dynamic Systems  [PDF]
Marcin Toporek, Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.515111
Abstract: The paper refers to disproportionation of HIO and NaIO in aqueous media, in static and dynamic systems. The results of calculations, realized according to GATES/GEB principles, with use of an iterative computer program, are presented graphically. An example of the computer program with all physicochemical knowledge involved in the related algorithm is attached herewith.
Solubility and Dissolution in Terms of Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems Principles  [PDF]
Anna Maria Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski, Marcin Toporek, Andrzej Pietrzyk
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.54006
Abstract: The correct approach, based on the rules of conservation and detailed physicochemical/thermodynamic knowledge on the system considered is opposed to conventional approach to solubility and dissolution, based on stoichiometry of a reaction notation and on the solubility product (Ksp) of a precipitate. The correct approach is realized according to Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems (GATES) principles, with use of iterative programs applied for computational purposes. All the qualitative and quantitative knowledge is involved in the balances and independent expressions for the equilibrium constants. Three two-phase electrolytic systems with diversified chemical properties were selected carefully, from the viewpoint of their diversity. The results of calculations are presented graphically and discussed. The advantages of the GATES in resolution of two-phase (static) non-redox systems and one complex (dynamic) redox system are proved.
Calculation of Solubility of Oxyquinolinates  [PDF]
Anna M. Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2014.43010
Abstract:

The solubilities (s, mol/L) of different oxyquinolinates (oxinates, MeL2) are calculated using the formulae obtained according to elementary algebra, with the use of Excel spreadsheets. The calculations are involved with solution of algebraic equation of the third degree, obtained on the basis of concentration balances. The root of this equation, , is then inserted into the charge balance, and resolved according to zeroing procedure. In principle, the calculations are related to aqueous media. Nonetheless, the extension on liquid-liquid extraction systems is also proposed.

Evaluation of Transition Points between Different Solid Phases in Aqueous Media  [PDF]
Anna M. Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2014.43012
Abstract:

A uniform procedure is suggested for calculation of the pHt value(s) separating equilibrium solid phases in pH scale, at an excess of the precipitating agent. The pHt value, related to pairs of precipitates formed from the species  \"\" and \"\" , fulfils the relation \"\", where F is a constant value involving pKso’s for solubility products (Kso’s) of these precipitates, and the equilibrium data, related to the species composing these precipitates.


Linear Dependence of Balances for Non-Redox Electrolytic Systems  [PDF]
Anna M. Michaowska-Kaczmarczyk, Tadeusz Micha?owski
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.517134
Abstract: Two complex dynamic non-redox systems are considered as examples, providing interdependent linear equations. A simple and efficient linear combination method that leads the system of equations to the identity, 0 = 0, is used for this purpose. These examples are clear confirmations of the general property differentiating non-redox and redox electrolytic systems. This property is involved with linear dependence or independence of 2·f(O)-f(H) on charge and elemental/core balances for elements/cores ≠H, O, where f(H) and f(O) are elemental balances for H and O, respectively.
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