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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221779 matches for " Anna L. Newton "
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Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers
Anna L Hatton, John Dixon, Keith Rome, Julia L Newton, Denis J Martin
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-5-11
Abstract: Thirty older adults >65?years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1]), with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10?m (GAITRite system), and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform) under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention) and smooth (control) insoles in their usual footwear.Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P?=?0.02), step length (P?=?0.04) and stride length (P?=?0.03) compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P?>?0.05).A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated.
Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
Anna L. Newton,Lynae J. Hanks,Ambika P. Ashraf,Elizabeth Williams,Michelle Davis,Krista Casazza
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/581432
Abstract: The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 (<0.05) versus SPEC: 16.1±1.0 to 16.8±1.0 (=0.05)]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks (<0.05), which was positively related to triglycerides (<0.001) and inversely associated with total cholesterol (<0.001) and LDL (<0.001). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD (=0.05), which was positively related to fasting insulin (<0.001) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose (<0.05). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration.
Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
Anna L. Newton,Lynae J. Hanks,Ambika P. Ashraf,Elizabeth Williams,Michelle Davis,Krista Casazza
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/581432
Abstract: The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 ( ) versus SPEC: to ( )]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks ( ), which was positively related to triglycerides ( ) and inversely associated with total cholesterol ( ) and LDL ( ). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD ( ), which was positively related to fasting insulin ( ) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose ( ). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration. 1. Introduction The steady rise in prevalence of pediatric obesity over the past three decades has been accompanied by accumulation of risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in childhood and adolescence. The occurrence of hypovitaminosis D (expressed as levels <20?ng/mL of circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD)) has been increasingly documented in the same population [1, 2]. Moreover, children/adolescents with hypovitaminosis D have been reported to experience greater instances of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) [1, 3, 4]. Further, it has been proposed that elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), consequential to chronic low vitamin D level, is mechanistically involved in the adverse perturbations of risk factors underlying MetSyn [5]. Given the emerging identification of vitamin D as an integral player in numerous metabolic pathways, it stands to reason that vitamin D status in the pediatric populace may play a role in the prevalence of metabolic disease risk factors [6, 7]. The relationship between 25OHD status and metabolic health is not equally distributed across groups. In particular, the relationship is more apparent among African American (AA) females, particularly those who are overweight/obese
Role of BMI in the Association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 Variant with Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Anna M. Kucharska-Newton,Keri L. Monda,Suzette J. Bielinski,Eric Boerwinkle,Thomas D. Rea,Wayne D. Rosamond,James S. Pankow,Anna K ttgen,Gerardo Heiss,Kari E. North
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/651903
Abstract: We examined the association of variation in the type 2 diabetes risk-conferring TCF7L2 gene with the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among the lean, overweight, and obese members of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed using a general model, with the major homozygote as the reference category. For 9,865 whites, a significant increase in the risk of CHD was seen only among lean (BMI<25 kg/m2) individuals homozygous for the allele of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 gene risk variant (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.03,1.97; =.01). No association was found among 3,631 blacks, regardless of BMI status. An attenuated hazard ratio was observed among the nondiabetic ARIC cohort members. This study suggests that body mass modifies the association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele with CHD risk.
Role of BMI in the Association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 Variant with Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Anna M. Kucharska-Newton,Keri L. Monda,Suzette J. Bielinski,Eric Boerwinkle,Thomas D. Rea,Wayne D. Rosamond,James S. Pankow,Anna K?ttgen,Gerardo Heiss,Kari E. North
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/651903
Abstract: We examined the association of variation in the type 2 diabetes risk-conferring TCF7L2 gene with the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among the lean, overweight, and obese members of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed using a general model, with the major homozygote as the reference category. For 9,865 whites, a significant increase in the risk of CHD was seen only among lean ( ?kg/ ) individuals homozygous for the allele of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 gene risk variant (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.03,1.97; ). No association was found among 3,631 blacks, regardless of BMI status. An attenuated hazard ratio was observed among the nondiabetic ARIC cohort members. This study suggests that body mass modifies the association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele with CHD risk. 1. Introduction Several studies have observed an association between the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene and the risk of diabetes [1]. In previous work, using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, we reported that the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 risk allele (T) and incidence of type 2 diabetes depended on obesity status [2]. Those results were in agreement with data from other studies which suggested a modulating effect of obesity status on the type 2 diabetes susceptibility in TCF7L2 rs7903146 risk allele carriers [3–5]. The modulating effect of obesity status on the association of genetic variants with the risk of type 2 diabetes may in part be related to functional characteristics. Gene variants which affect beta cell function and consequently insulin secretion have a more pronounced effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes among lean and normal weight individuals, whereas gene variants affecting insulin activity at the peripheral cell level increase type 2 diabetes susceptibility among the obese [4]. Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [6] but the relationship between gene variants conferring type 2 diabetes susceptibility and cardiovascular outcomes has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we examined whether obesity affects the association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 gene variant with the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). 2. Methods and Procedures The ARIC Study is a prospective cohort of 15,792 men and women, aged 45–64 years at baseline (1987–1989), selected as a probability sample from four US communities located in North Carolina, Mississippi, Minnesota, and Maryland
Forming Stages of Polycrystalline TiN Films Depending on the Nitrogen Concentration in Mixed Gas  [PDF]
Anna L. Kameneva
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.21002
Abstract: The influence of nitrogen concentration in mixed gas on temperature conditions, structure and phase composition of the TiN film deposited by arc spraying has been investigated. By electron microscopic investigations and X-ray diffraction phase analysis was recognized forming stages and structuring process of the film with main cubic phase (111) TiN. It was discovered that forming stages and process of structuring of ion-plasma TiN films are affected by both film temperature and its rate of heating.
PhyBin: binning trees by topology
Ryan R. Newton,Irene L.G. Newton
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.187
Abstract: A major goal of many evolutionary analyses is to determine the true evolutionary history of an organism. Molecular methods that rely on the phylogenetic signal generated by a few to a handful of loci can be used to approximate the evolution of the entire organism but fall short of providing a global, genome-wide, perspective on evolutionary processes. Indeed, individual genes in a genome may have different evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is informative to analyze the number and kind of phylogenetic topologies found within an orthologous set of genes across a genome. Here we present PhyBin: a flexible program for clustering gene trees based on topological structure. PhyBin can generate bins of topologies corresponding to exactly identical trees or can utilize Robinson-Fould’s distance matrices to generate clusters of similar trees, using a user-defined threshold. Additionally, PhyBin allows the user to adjust for potential noise in the dataset (as may be produced when comparing very closely related organisms) by pre-processing trees to collapse very short branches or those nodes not meeting a defined bootstrap threshold. As a test case, we generated individual trees based on an orthologous gene set from 10 Wolbachia species across four different supergroups (A–D) and utilized PhyBin to categorize the complete set of topologies produced from this dataset. Using this approach, we were able to show that although a single topology generally dominated the analysis, confirming the separation of the supergroups, many genes supported alternative evolutionary histories. Because PhyBin’s output provides the user with lists of gene trees in each topological cluster, it can be used to explore potential reasons for discrepancies between phylogenies including homoplasies, long-branch attraction, or horizontal gene transfer events.
Community Smart Grid Utilizing Dynamic Demand Response and Tidal Power for Grid Stabilization  [PDF]
Anna Demeo, Michael L. Peterson
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.47053
Abstract:

Conventional electricity generation is one of the largest contributors to climate change. Renewable energy sources are a promising part of the solution but uncertainty combined with a lack of controllability prevents renewable sources of power from being direct substitutes of conventional energy sources. This shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand on following generation. Research on renewable energy penetration of the grid predominately focuses on wind and solar power resources but demand cannot always match availability from these sources and therefore greatly increases the need for energy storage. Tidal power differs from solar and wind. Its a predictably renewable resource which makes it extremely valuable even on a relatively small scale. Introduction of tidal power in a high penetration micro-grid can serve to stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. Widely different time scale for wind, solar and tidal power availability results in low cross correlations and therefore increases stability. This research describes an incremental approach to migrating a grid-tie island towards the formation of a smart-micro grid. The system will include a high penetration of three distributed generation systems, wind, solar and tidal and utilize commercially available energy storage and a smart-home management controller. Dynamic demand response through load balancing is implemented to minimize interactions with the electric grid. A second component of this work is to determine the optimum tidal generation capacity for the micro grid such that needed storage capacity from batteries or the utility grid is minimized.

The mathematical role of time and space-time in classical physics
Newton C. A. da Costa,Adonai S. Sant'Anna
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We use Padoa's principle of independence of primitive symbols in axiomatic systems in order to discuss the mathematical role of time and space-time in some classical physical theories. We show that time is eliminable in Newtonian mechanics and that space-time is also dispensable in Hamiltonian mechanics, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, the Dirac electron, classical gauge fields, and general relativity.
Time is dispensable in thermodynamics
Newton C. A. da Costa,Adonai S. Sant'Anna
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We use Padoa's principle of independence of primitive symbols in axiomatic systems in order to show that time is dispensable in continuum thermodynamics, according to the axiomatic formulation of Gurtin and Williams. We also show how to define time by means of the remaining primitive concepts of Gurtin and Williams system. Finally, we introduce thermodynamics without any explicit reference to time and briefly discuss some physical and philosophical consequences of our main results.
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