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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202587 matches for " Anna G. Polunina "
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Neuropsychological Functions of μ- and δ-Opioid Systems
Anna G. Polunina,Evgeny A. Bryun
ISRN Addiction , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/674534
Abstract: Brain opioid innervation is involved in many pathophysiological processes related to drug addiction. The main idea of the present review is that μ-/δ-opioid innervation is an intrinsic component of the motor/approach behavior network, which is activated synergetically with dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic network. Contribution of opioid innervation to the motor/approach behavior processing includes generation of positive emotions and inhibition of pain and stress reactions in order that the individual would be able to reach the vital goal. We cite the neuroanatomical data which showed that motor subcortical nuclei contain the most abundant opioid innervation and its activation is an obligatory component of positive emotions. In the majority of life situations, motor/approach behavior network concomitantly activates pain/stress control opioid network. Intensive cognitive activity induces activation of opioid innervation as well, and both enhancing and impairing effects of opioid agonists on cognitive functioning were demonstrated. Overall, the functioning of endogenous opioid networks may be summarized as following: NO physical/cognitive activity?=?NO positive emotions plus NO pain/stress control. We suppose that contemporary findings concerning neuropsychological functions of endogenous opioid system explain many controversial issues in neuropsychiatric conditions predisposing to drug addiction and neurological mechanisms of opioid addiction. 1. Introduction Brain opioid innervation is intrinsically involved in many pathophysiological processes related to drug addiction. Multiple experimental studies showed that endogenous opioid system is not only the target of opioid addictive drugs but is also activated during alcohol and psychostimulants consumption [1, 2]. Moreover, genetic characteristics of endogenous brain opioid system are an important factor predisposing to drug abuse and addiction. In addicted populations, the frequency of G allele of -opioid receptor is almost twice as high as in healthy populations [3, 4], and the efficacy of detoxification of alcoholic patients with G allele was shown to be lower in comparison with A/A genotype [5]. Ray and colleagues [6] observed higher levels of vigor and lower levels negative mood in alcoholics with Asp40 allele of the -opioid receptor gene in comparison with alcoholics who were homozygotes for the Asn40 variants. Association between cocaine addiction and polymorphism of -opioid receptor was shown in humans as well [7]. Insufficient activity of endogenous brain opioid systems appears to predispose to drug
Size of Left Cardiac Chambers Correlates with Cerebral Microembolic Load in Open Heart Operations
Elena Z. Golukhova,Anna G. Polunina,Svetlana V. Zhuravleva,Natalia P. Lefterova,Alexey V. Begachev
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/143679
Abstract: Background. Microemboli are a widely recognized etiological factor of cerebral complications in cardiac surgery patients. The present study was aimed to determine if size of left cardiac chambers relates to cerebral microembolic load in open heart operations. Methods. Thirty patients participated in the study. Echocardiography was performed in 2-3 days before surgery. A transcranial Doppler system was used for registering intraoperative microemboli. Results. Preoperative left atrium and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic sizes significantly correlated with intraoperative microembolic load ( , 0.57 and 0.53, , resp.). The associations between left ventricular diameters and number of cerebral microemboli remained significant when cardiopulmonary bypass time was included as a covariate into the analysis. Conclusions. The present results demonstrate that increased size of left heart chambers is an influential risk factor for elevated cerebral microembolic load during open heart operations. Mini-invasive surgery and carbon dioxide insufflation into wound cavity may be considered as neuroprotective approaches in patients with high risk of cerebral microembolism. 1. Introduction Microemboli are a widely recognized etiological factor of cerebral complications in cardiac surgery patients. Our group found significant associations between microembolic load and deliria and cognitive dysfunction after on-pump operations [1, 2]. Microemboli are observed during on-pump operations in nearly all patients [1, 3]. However, the number of microemboli considerably varies in different cases being the largest in open heart operations. In the study of Abu-Omar et al. [4], open heart procedures were associated with a 22-fold increase in microemboli in comparison to off-pump coronary patients. Prevalence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction was reported to be considerably higher after valve operations in comparison with coronary surgery as well [1, 5]. Progress in on-pump technologies resulted in reduced cerebral microembolic load and, therefore, neurological complications during contemporary cardiac operations. Membrane oxygenators instead of bubble ones and arterial line filters are used at present in the majority of cardiac surgery centers. Off-pump surgery, epiaortic scanning, minimized aortic manipulations, and perfusionist interventions were introduced as emboli lowing approaches. Hence, correct knowledge about potential sources of microemboli increases quality of surgery and, therefore, improves outcomes. However, it is still unclear why the
Electroencephalography as a Tool for Assessment of Brain Ischemic Alterations after Open Heart Operations
Elena Z. Golukhova,Anna G. Polunina,Natalia P. Lefterova,Alexey V. Begachev
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/980873
Abstract: Cardiac surgery is commonly associated with brain ischemia. Few studies addressed brain electric activity changes after on-pump operations. Eyes closed EEG was performed in 22 patients (mean age: ) before and two weeks after valve replacement. Spouses of patients were invited to participate as controls. Generalized increase of beta power most prominent in beta-1 band was an unambiguous pathological sign of postoperative cortex dysfunction, probably, manifesting due to gamma-activity slowing (“beta buzz” symptom). Generalized postoperative increase of delta-1 mean frequency along with increase of slow-wave activity in right posterior region may be hypothesized to be a consequence of intraoperative ischemia as well. At the same time, significant changes of alpha activity were observed in both patient and control groups, and, therefore, may be considered as physiological. Unexpectedly, controls showed prominent increase of electric activity in left temporal region whereas patients were deficient in left hemisphere activity in comparison with controls at postoperative followup. Further research is needed in order to determine the true neurological meaning of the EEG findings after on-pump operations. 1. Introduction Cardiac surgery is commonly associated with perioperative brain ischemia. Neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated acute brain edema and global decrease of brain metabolism during first three days after on-pump surgery [1–4]. In addition, 20–45% of on-pump patients demonstrated multiple small ischemic lesions postoperatively [4–8]. Only 20% of patients with neuroimaging ischemic lesions showed clinical signs of stroke or acute encephalopathy. Nevertheless, the majority of on-pump patients reported memory decrease several months or even several years after surgery [9, 10]. Neuropsychological studies consistently confirmed mild cognitive decline in the majority of cardiac surgery patients at discharge and in 7–69% of patients at 1–3 months followup after surgery [11]. Hence, mild brain ischemic injury is common after on-pump surgery appearing as postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Overall, total volume of brain ischemic alterations correlated with clinical symptoms in the majority of neuroimaging studies [7, 8, 12, 13]. Many researchers pointed to the embolic genesis of the postoperative brain infarcts due to characteristic distribution of the latter ones [12, 14]. Significant associations between microembolic load and severity of postoperative brain injury were consistently shown [2, 15, 16]. In our relatively young patient cohort we found
Cognitive Dysfunction after On-Pump Operations: Neuropsychological Characteristics and Optimal Core Battery of Tests
Anna G. Polunina,Elena Z. Golukhova,Alla B. Guekht,Natalia P. Lefterova,Leo A. Bokeria
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/302824
Abstract: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges as memory decline, decreased attention, and decreased concentration during several months, or even years, after surgery. Here we present results of our three neuropsychological studies, which overall included 145 patients after on-pump operations. We found that the auditory memory span test (digit span) was more effective as a tool for registration of POCD, in comparison with the word-list learning and story-learning tests. Nonverbal memory or visuoconstruction tests were sensitive to POCD in patients after intraoperative opening of cardiac chambers with increased cerebral air embolism. Psychomotor speed tests (digit symbol, or TMT A) registered POCD, which was characteristic for elderly atherosclerotic patients. Finally, we observed that there were significant effects of the order of position of a test on the performance on this test. For example, the postoperative performance on the core tests (digit span and digit symbol) showed minimal impairment when either of these tests was administered at the beginning of testing. Overall, our data shows that the selection of tests, and the order of which these tests are administered, may considerably influence the results of studies of POCD. 1. Introduction Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges predominantly as memory decline during several months, or even years after surgery [1–5]. In addition, patients commonly report decreased concentration, attention span, and psychomotor speed. Both patients and spouses of patients notice postoperative memory decline after the first year after operation [3]. Negative effects on driving abilities during several months after uncomplicated cardiac surgeries were registered [6]. Some researchers include a broader spectrum of disorders around the term “postoperative cognitive dysfunction”—these disorders may include perioperative ischemic brain damage, brain death, delirium, stroke, and transitory ischemic attack [5]. Multiple neuropsychological studies confirm a decline in the performance of cognitive tests in the majority of patients during the first week after cardiac surgery and in about 30–40% of patients in 1–3 months after surgery in comparison with preoperative testing [review: [7]]. In young patients, cognitive function tends to be restored to its preoperative levels, in about 6–12 months after surgery [8–12], and there is no association between POCD and risk of dementia, in this young
Quality control in the safety laminated glass production
O.V. Polunina
Algoritmy, Metody i Sistemy Obrabotki Dannyh , 2012,
Abstract: Laminated glass quality indicators are considered in the paper. The comparative analysis of the traditional and axiomatic analysis of quality control is carried out. Axiomatic the analysis of indicators of laminated glass quality is carried out.
“The Century of Education” in Germany: to the History of Establishment of National Education System
Liudmila N. Polunina
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: The author considers the development of education in Germany in the 19th century in political, social and cultural context, paying a due attention to the most important philosophical and pedagogical ideas which influenced the establishment of national education system
Communication between Two Lactuca Species  [PDF]
Anna G. Aguilera, Sara Williams, Tiffany Armstrong
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.613068
Abstract:

There is increasing evidence of plant communication and behavior. We examine how two Lactuca species, L. sativa and L. serriola, communicate with themselves and one another via root exudates. We exposed both species to their own, to the same species, and to the other species root exudates. We then measured the length of their primary root as a proxy for competitive effort. L. serriola produced longer roots when exposed to its own exudates relative to when exposed to L. sativas. In contrast, L. sativa produced shorter roots when exposed to its own root exudates. These results indicate kin recognition in these species. Further, the results show that L. sativa, a domesticated species, shares resources well with conspecifics. In contrast, L. serriola, a sparsely distributed species, is more competitive with conspecifics than with other species. We argue that artificial selection and domestication of L. sativa, from its progenitor L. serriola, modify how the species interprets and respond to exudate cues from neighboring plants.

Juanjo Sáez i l'educació de l'art: dos llibres d'una tirada
Anna Gómez Mundó
Temps d'Educació , 2008,
Abstract:
Ustalenie ańcucha epidemiologicznego dermatomikoz w wybranych Wy szych Seminariach Zakonnym i Duchownym Archidiecezji ódzkiej. Cz I. Wybrane warunki ycia seminarzystów oraz gatunki grzybów wyst puj ce w ich rodowisku
Anna G?owacka
Medical Mycology , 2002,
Abstract: Wprowadzenie: W dost pnym pi miennictwie brak jest prac dotycz cych ańcucha epidemiologicznego dermatomikoz w tak specyficznych rodowiskach zamkni tych, jakimi s seminaria zakonne i duchowne. Cel pracy: Ocena cz stotliwo ci wyst powania grzybów w zmianach chorobowych skóry i jej przydatków u seminarzystów, na powierzchni krat wspólnych urz dzeń sanitarnych, w glebie ogrodów otaczaj cych seminaria oraz ustalenie róde zaka enia. Materia : Badaniem obj to 224 seminarzystów w wieku od 19 do 32 lat (x=22,9±1,81 roku) w rodowisku 1 (Wy sze Seminarium Zakonne) - 114 m czyzn a w rodowisku 2 (Wy sze Seminarium Duchowne) - 110 m czyzn. Ogó em do badań mikologicznych pobrano 367 prób, w tym ze rodowiska 1-218 prób - a ze rodowiska 2-149 prób. Najwi cej prób pobrano ze zmian chorobowych skóry przestrzeni mi dzypalcowych stóp w rodowisku 1-108 prób (49,6%), a w rodowisku 2-95 prób (63,8%). Metodyka: Badania mitologiczne przeprowadzono, opieraj c si na w asnym systemie izolowania i ró nicowania szczepów grzybów, wykorzystuj c cechy morfologiczne i w a ciwo ci biochemiczne. Wyniki: Obecno grzybów wykazano w glebie ogrodów otaczaj cych seminaria - wyizolowano cznie 9 szczepów nale cych do 6 gatunków: Kera-tynomyces ajelloi, Scopulariopsis koningii, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Trichophyton mentagrophy-tes. Ze skóry badanych seminarzystów i z powierzchni krat urz dzeń sanitarnych wyizolowano: w rodowisku 1 - 49 szczepów, a w rodowisku 2 -38 szczepów. Oznaczono 5 gatunków grzybów: Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. W obu rodowiskach najcz ciej izolowano Candida albicans: w rodowisku 1 - 34 szczepy (69,4%) a w rodowisku 2 -32 szczepy (84,2%).
Ustalenie ańcucha epidemiologicznego dermatomikoz w wybranych Wy szych Seminariach Zakonnym i Duchownym Archidiecezji ódzkiej. Cz III. Ocena w a ciwo ci przeciwgrzybiczych wybranych olejków eterycznych na szczepy grzybów Candida albicans wyizolowanyc
Anna G?owacka
Medical Mycology , 2003,
Abstract: W kolejnych badaniach oceniono wra liwo 66 szczepów C. albicans wyizolowanych ze skóry i krat na 11 olejków eterycznych (tatarakowy, kopru w oskiego, marchwiowy, kminkowy, ja owcowy, tymiankowy, sza wiowy, sosnowy, mi towy, walerianowy i kolendrowy). Spo ród nich 4 olejki (sosnowy, mi towy, walerianowy i kolendrowy) nie hamowa y wzrostu szczepów grzybów, a pozosta e 7 olejków wp ywa o hamuj co na ich wzrost. Porównanie dzia ania olejków na szczepy w obu rodowiskach wykaza o, e olejki: tymiankowy (p<0,001) i tatarakowy (p<0,01) istotnie lepiej dzia a y w rodowisku 1 ni w rodowisku 2, za olejek kopru w oskiego (p<0,05) istotnie gorzej dzia a w rodowisku 1 ni w rodowisku 2. Pozosta e olejki eteryczne: marchwiowy, kminkowy, ja owcowy i sza wiowy dzia a y w obu rodowiskach w sposób niewykazuj cy istotnie statystycznie ró nicy (p>0,05). Najbardziej aktywnym olejkiem w obu rodowiskach wobec zbadanych szczepów C. albicans by olejek tymiankowy o warto ciach MIC=1,296^-4,217 mg/ml, redniej warto ci MIC x1=2,179 mg/ml - w rodowisku 1 i odpowiednio warto ciach MIC=1,47H4,788 mg/ml, redniej warto ci MIC x2=3,234 mg/ml -w rodowisku 2. Najmniej aktywnym w obu rodowiskach okaza si olejek kopru w oskiego o warto ciach MIC=13,762^-54,322 mg/ml, redniej warto ci MIC x^= 35,789 mg/ml - w rodowisku 1 i odpowiednio warto ciach MIC=14,212^-54,713 mg/ml, redniej warto ci MIC x2=29,130 mg/ml - w rodowisku 2.
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