The paper discusses the ways junior high school learners may be helped to become bilingual speakers with the help of appropriately applied goal-setting technique. The research done among junior high school teachers who used the goals setting technique revealed positive correlation between the application of goal-setting in the junior high school classes and the FL results of the learners attending such lessons. The result of these learners, when contrasted with the results of their peers attending the classes taught by the teachers who did not use goal-setting showed that the first group of learners was much better during the obligatory mock exam all junior school learners have to take at the end of their school education.

Abstract:
A novel representation of entropy is introduced, based on the heuristic concept of heat dispersion. To this end dispersion sets are defined, which describe both the heat transferred to a system and the associated entropy change. Some applications are discussed.

Abstract:
The terms "Family" and "Gypsy names and their language" from Gypsy slang in current Spanish lexicography. The paper deals with two lexical fields in Spanish of Gypsy origin: "Family" and "The Title of Gypsies and their Language". It comments on their treatment in contemporary Spanish lexicography and analyses in detail their history in previous editions of the Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy. It questions the suitability of lexicographical marks used, mainly in the Academy's Dictionary. Finally, there is a general comparative study of the treatment of these lexical fields between the 22nd edition of the Dictionary (DRAE) and Contemporary Spanish Dictionary (DEA). (Spanish text).

Abstract:
We show how to determine (reconstruct) a master equation governing the time evolution of an open quantum system. We present a general algorithm for the reconstruction of the corresponding Liouvillian superoperators. Dynamics of a two-level atom in various environments is discussed in detail.

Abstract:
The Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (IREE), Prague, provides the national primary time a frequency reference for the Czechoslovak metrology. The paper describes main activities of IREE in standard time and frequency generation, dissemination, and measurements.

Abstract:
How well one can copy an arbitrary qubit? To answer this question we consider two arbitrary vectors in a two-dimensional state space and an abstract copying transformation which will copy these two vectors. If the vectors are orthogonal, then perfect copies can be made. If they are not, then errors will be introduced. The size of the error depends on the inner product of the two original vectors. We derive a lower bound for the amount of noise induced by quantum copying. We examine both copying transformations which produce one copy and transformations which produce many, and show that the quality of each copy decreases as the number of copies increases.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for an exact efficient transformation of a tensor product state of many identically prepared qubits into a state of a logarithmically small number of qubits. Using a quadratic number of elementary quantum gates we transform N identically prepared qubits into a state, which is nontrivial only on the first log(N+1) qubits. This procedure might be useful for quantum memories, as only a small portion of the original qubits has to be stored. Another possible application is in communicating a direction encoded in a set of quantum states, as the compressed state provides a high-effective method for such an encoding.

Abstract:
We propose a method for entangling a system of two-level atoms in photonic crystals. The atoms are assumed to move in void regions of a photonic crystal. The interaction between the atoms is mediated either via a defect mode or via resonant dipole-dipole interaction. We show that these interactions can produce pure entangled atomic states. We analyze the problem with parameters typical for currently existing photonic crystals and Rydberg atoms. We show that the atoms can emerge from photonic crystals in entangled states. Depending on the linear dimensions of the crystal and on their velocity of the entangled atoms can be separated by tens of centimeters.

Abstract:
A set of all states of a bi-partite quantum system can be divided into subsets each of which contains states with the same degree of entanglement. In this paper we address a question whether local operations (without classical communication) affect the entanglement-induced state ordering. We show that arbitrary unilocal channel (i.e., a channel that acts on one sub-system of a bi-partite system only) might change the ordering for an arbitrary nontrivial measure of entanglement. A slightly weaker result holds for the maximally entangled states. In particular, the maximally entangled states might not remain the most entangled ones at the output of a unilocal noise channel.

Abstract:
We analyze how entanglement between two components of a bipartite system behaves under the action of local channels of the form $\cE\otimes\cI$. We show that a set of maximally entangled states is by the action of $\cE\otimes\cI$ transformed into the set of states that exhibit the same degree of entanglement. Moreover, this degree represents an upper bound on entanglement that is available at the output of the channel irrespective what is the input state of the composite system. We show that within this bound the the entanglement-induced state ordering is ``relative'' and can be changed by the action of local channels. That is, two states $\varrho_1^{(in)}$ and $\varrho_2^{(in)}$ such that the entanglement $E[\varrho_1^{(in)}]$ of the first state is larger than the entanglement $E[\varrho_2^{(in)}]$ of the second state are transformed into states $\varrho_1^{(out)}$ and $\varrho_2^{(out)}$ such that $E[\varrho_2^{(out)}] > E[\varrho_1^{(out)}]$.