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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11873 matches for " Ann-Marie Fortuna "
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Polymorphic Toll-like receptors
Ann-Marie Mallon
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-1-reports040
Abstract: Smirnova et al. identified the genomic sequence of Tlr4 in human and mouse; both contain three conserved exons and lie amid repetitive sequences of retroviral origin. Analysis of Tlr4 from 35 strains of Mus musculus revealed that Tlr4 is a polymorphic protein. The extracellular domain is far more variable than the cytoplasmic domain, although variability does not seem to be confined to any particular region of the extracellular domain. The carboxy-terminal end of the cytoplasmic domain is, however, also highly variable. The additional determination of the coding sequence of Tlr4 from chimpanzee and baboon showed that variation was evident among both strains and species.The authors have identified a spectrum of naturally occurring mutation in murine Tlr4 and thus have provided a foundation for functional experiments to investigate the effects of this polymorphism on innate immunity. The next step is to determine whether, and how, the mutations discovered alter either the specificity of LPS detection or the magnitude of the LPS signal.Genome Biology
Changing Classroom Practice to Include the Project Approach
Ann-Marie Clark
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 2006,
Abstract: Project work involves content, products, and processes. Teacher educators may notice that those new to project work adopt ideas and practices related to content and products more readily than they adopt ideas and practices related to the processes embedded in good project work. To fully implement the Project Approach, teachers need to develop an understanding of the underlying dynamics of the processes of project work. The first part of this article defines projects, provides a brief history of the Project Approach, and discusses some benefits of the approach. It then goes on to discuss challenges to implementing the Project Approach, the teacher's role in project work, and processes of the Project Approach. The first part of the article describes how teachers begin to experience a change in their practices as they come to better comprehend the underlying dynamics of the processes that constitute good project work. The second part of the article points to some of the research on teacher learning that may account for the difficulties with this change.
The Eccentric Disc Instability: Dependency on Background Stellar Cluster
Ann-Marie Madigan
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper we revisit the "eccentric disc instability", an instability which occurs in coherently eccentric discs of stars orbiting massive black holes (MBHs) embedded in stellar clusters, which results in stars achieving either very high or low eccentricities. The preference for stars to attain higher or lower eccentricities depends significantly on the density distribution of the surrounding stellar cluster. Here we discuss its mechanism and the implications for the Galactic Centre, home to at least one circum-MBH stellar disc.
How the Health Care Nurse Supports and Enhances the Child’s Attachment to Their Parents  [PDF]
Ann-Marie Johansson, Inga Landahl, Annsofie Adolfsson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24070
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to provide insight into how the Child Healthcare Clinic (BVC) nurse supports and encourages the child’s bonding to their parents during the regularly scheduled checkups at the healthcare clinics. Method: The study was done using a qualitative approach. The data was collected from the interviews of four focus groups which were comprised of a total of eighteen BVC nurses who work solely for the BVC. The resulting data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The following theme emerged from the research material: Empower the parents in order to enable the child to have a healthy connection to the parents. This is accomplished by the BVC nurse building and creating a trusting relationship with the parents and providing support for them in their new roles as parents. The BVC nurses must have comprehensive knowledge about the needs and development of children and they need to have exceptional communication skills as well. It is also mandatory that the BVC nurse have access to cooperation and support from their colleagues and the support of other related professions. Conclusion: Providing support to parents during the bonding period of their infant children is a most important function for BVC nurses because there is much to be determined about children’s development and future possibilities during this formative period.
Comparison of Raw Dairy Manure Slurry and Anaerobically Digested Slurry as N Sources for Grass Forage Production
Olivia E. Saunders,Ann-Marie Fortuna,Joe H. Harrison,Elizabeth Whitefield,Craig G. Cogger,Ann C. Kennedy,Andy I. Bary
International Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/101074
Abstract: We conducted a 3-year field study to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate concentrations relative to urea. Annual N applications ranged from 600?kg?N?ha?1 in 2009 to 300?kg?N?ha?1 in 2011. Forage yield and N uptake were similar across slurry treatments. Soil nitrate concentrations were greatest at the beginning of the fall leaching season, and did not differ among slurry treatments or application methods. Urea-fertilized plots had the highest soil nitrate concentrations but did not consistently have greatest forage biomass. ANR for the slurry treatments ranged from 35 to 70% when calculations were based on ammonium-N concentration, compared with 31 to 65% for urea. Slurry ANR calculated on a total N basis was lower (15 to 40%) due to lower availability of the organic N in the slurries. No consistent differences in soil microbial biomass or other biological indicators were observed. Anaerobically digested slurry supported equal forage production and similar N use efficiency when compared to raw dairy slurry. 1. Introduction There is a need for a set of best management practices that addresses how to utilize the growing quantity of reactive nitrogen (N) produced by livestock operations. Animal agriculture in the United States has become more specialized with farms consolidating and growing in size [1]. The number of dairy farms has decreased by 94% since 1960, but the number of animals has remained constant [2]. Animal consolidation has created challenges with respect to on-farm N surplus, waste management and nutrient loading in the environment [3, 4]. Annually in the United States, more than 5800?Mg of manure N is produced [5]. One approach to ameliorate negative environmental impacts associated with animal manures is through adoption of anaerobic digestion technologies to treat farm-generated manures and food processing wastes [6–9]. Digestion of wastes can provide a stable and consistent source of nutrients comparable to inorganic fertilizers such as urea. Anaerobic digestion converts organic carbon into methane used to generate electricity, and it also converts organic N to plant available ammonium ( ), increasing the ratio of /total N in the effluent [10]. Carbon is removed during both the methane production and fiber removal processes, resulting in a smaller C?:?N ratio of the effluent [11]. Therefore, digested
Mass Segregation in the Galactic Centre
Clovis Hopman,Ann-Marie Madigan
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Two-body energy exchange between stars orbiting massive black holes (MBHs) leads to the formation of a power-law density distribution n(r)~r^(-a) that diverges towards the MBH. For a single mass population, a=7/4 and the flow of stars is much less than N(
Secular Dynamical Anti-Friction in Galactic Nuclei
Ann-Marie Madigan,Yuri Levin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/754/1/42
Abstract: We identify a gravitational-dynamical process in near-Keplerian potentials of galactic nuclei that occurs when an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) is migrating on an eccentric orbit through the stellar cluster towards the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We find that, apart from conventional dynamical friction, the IMBH experiences an often much stronger systematic torque due to the secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions with the cluster's stars. The force which results in this torque is applied, counterintuitively, in the same direction as the IMBH's precession and we refer to its action as "secular-dynamical anti-friction" (SDAF). We argue that SDAF, and not the gravitational ejection of stars, is responsible for the IMBH's eccentricity increase seen in the initial stages of previous N-body simulations. Our numerical experiments, supported by qualitative arguments, demonstrate that (1) when the IMBH's precession direction is artificially reversed, the torque changes sign as well, which decreases the orbital eccentricity, (2) the rate of eccentricity growth is sensitive to the IMBH migration rate, with zero systematic eccentricity growth for an IMBH whose orbit is artificially prevented from inward migration, and (3) SDAF is the strongest when the central star cluster is rapidly rotating. This leads to eccentricity growth/decrease for the clusters rotating in the opposite/same direction relative to the IMBH's orbital motion.
Going with the flow: using gas clouds to probe the accretion flow feeding Sgr A*
Michael McCourt,Ann-Marie Madigan
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The massive black hole in our galactic center, Sgr A*, accretes only a small fraction of the gas available at its Bondi radius. The physical processes determining this accretion rate remain unknown, partly due to a lack of observational constraints on the gas at distances between ~10 and ~10$^5$ Schwarzschild radii (Rs) from the black hole. Recent infrared observations identify low-mass gas clouds, G1 and G2, moving on highly eccentric, nearly co-planar orbits through the accretion flow around Sgr A*. Although it is not yet clear whether these objects contain embedded stars, their extended gaseous envelopes evolve independently as gas clouds. In this paper we attempt to use these gas clouds to constrain the properties of the accretion flow at ~10$^3$ Rs. Assuming that G1 and G2 follow the same trajectory, we model the small differences in their orbital parameters as evolution resulting from interaction with the background flow. We find evolution consistent with the G-clouds originating in the clockwise disk. Our analysis enables the first unique determination of the rotation axis of the accretion flow: we localize the rotation axis to within 20 degrees, finding an orientation consistent with the parsec-scale jet identified in x-ray observations and with the circumnuclear disk, a massive torus of molecular gas ~1.5 pc from Sgr A*. This suggests that the gas in the accretion flow comes predominantly from the circumnuclear disk, rather than the winds of stars in the young clockwise disk. This result will be tested by the Event Horizon Telescope within the next year. Our model also makes testable predictions for the orbital evolution of G1 and G2, falsifiable on a 5-10 year timescale.
A new inclination instability reshapes Keplerian disks into cones: application to the outer Solar System
Ann-Marie Madigan,Michael McCourt
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Disks of bodies orbiting a much more massive central object are extremely common in astrophysics. When the orbits comprising such disks are eccentric, we show they are susceptible to a new dynamical instability. Gravitational forces between bodies in the disk drive exponential growth of their orbital inclinations and clustering in their angles of pericenter, expanding an initially thin disk into a conical shape by giving each orbit an identical 'tilt' with respect to the disk plane. This new instability dynamically produces the unusual distribution of orbits observed for minor planets beyond Neptune, suggesting that the instability has shaped the outer Solar System. It also implies a large initial disk mass (1-10 Earth masses) of scattered bodies at hundreds of AU; we predict increasing numbers of detections of minor planets clustered in their angles of pericenter with high inclinations.
What use is the human genome for understanding the mouse?
Paul Denny, Rachael Bate, Ann-Marie Mallon
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-11-comment2009
Abstract: All over the world, mouse geneticists have applauded the publication of the initial analysis of the human genome sequence(s) [1,2]. Why? One simplistic answer is that mouse and human are two flavors of mammal, and a genome sequence for one is a surrogate for the other. So perhaps the pertinent question then becomes: how can mouse geneticists make use of the human sequence? In this article, we briefly describe some ways in which the human working draft sequence can be used as a tool in mouse genomics, not only for assembling the mouse genome but also for identifying conserved sequence elements and providing new insights into genome evolution.Even before the inception of 'The Human Genome Project', mouse and human genetics already formed a two-way street. An early example of this was the observation that inherited traits exhibiting sex-linkage in humans were also sex-linked in mice - for example, hypophosphatemia [3]. As genetic maps improved in both species, it became clear that there were blocks of conserved synteny, along chromosomes (synteny literally means 'on the same thread') [4]. Indeed, with the development of dense, genome-wide maps, it has become possible confidently to infer the location of a mouse homolog of a human gene, on the basis of the location of the genes that flank it in the human genome, and vice versa (Figure 1) [5,6].Mice suffer from diseases similar to those of humans. Furthermore, this biological similarity can extend to defects in the same molecules: for example, mutations in the leptin gene cause morbid obesity [7] and in myosin VII cause deafness [8], both in humans and in mice. In complex genetic diseases, such as diabetes, or where mutations may be subtle rather than obviously deleterious, the mouse is of particular importance as it allows experimental testing of the validity of candidate mutations, by targeted mutagenesis. From the outset, the Human Genome Project recognized the importance of model organisms, from bacteria to mouse, an
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