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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3569 matches for " Ann Oakley "
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Is Use of Radiation Hormesis the Missing Link to a Better Cancer Treatment?  [PDF]
Paul A. Oakley
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.67065
Abstract: Radiation hormesis is a concept that pervades radiobiological exposures; low doses enhance immune response, while higher doses inhibit immune response. Low-dose Total-Body Irradiation (TBI) therapy offers radiation treatment to cancer patients using the concepts of radiation hormesis and show very good success rates. This phenomenon has been reported elsewhere as the “abscopal effect” and considering the marginal success rates of other treatment agents, like the immunotherapy drug Ipilimumab, TBI therapy may prove to be the missing link to a better cancer treatment.
The Long-Term Effects of a Peer-Led Sex Education Programme (RIPPLE): A Cluster Randomised Trial in Schools in England
Judith Stephenson ,Vicki Strange,Elizabeth Allen,Andrew Copas,Anne Johnson,Chris Bonell,Abdel Babiker,Ann Oakley,the RIPPLE Study Team
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050224
Abstract: Background Peer-led sex education is widely believed to be an effective approach to reducing unsafe sex among young people, but reliable evidence from long-term studies is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of one form of school-based peer-led sex education in reducing unintended teenage pregnancy, we did a cluster (school) randomised trial with 7 y of follow-up. Methods and Findings Twenty-seven representative schools in England, with over 9,000 pupils aged 13–14 y at baseline, took part in the trial. Schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). Peer educators, aged 16–17 y, were trained to deliver three 1-h classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14-y-old pupils from the same schools. The sessions used participatory learning methods designed to improve the younger pupils' skills in sexual communication and condom use and their knowledge about pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), contraception, and local sexual health services. Main outcome measures were abortion and live births by age 20 y, determined by anonymised linkage of girls to routine (statutory) data. Assessment of these outcomes was blind to sex education allocation. The proportion of girls who had one or more abortions before age 20 y was the same in each arm (intervention, 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0%–6.3%]; control, 5.0% [95% CI 4.0%–6.4%]). The odds ratio (OR) adjusted for randomisation strata was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80–1.42, p = 0.64, intervention versus control). The proportion of girls with one or more live births by 20.5 y was 7.5% (95% CI 5.9%–9.6%) in the intervention arm and 10.6% (95% CI 6.8%–16.1%) in the control arm, adjusted OR 0.77 (0.51–1.15). Fewer girls in the peer-led arm self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 y (7.2% intervention versus 11.2% control, adjusted OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42–0.91], weighted for non-response; response rate 61% intervention, 45% control). There were no significant differences for girls or boys in self-reported unprotected first sex, regretted or pressured sex, quality of current sexual relationship, diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases, or ability to identify local sexual health services. Conclusion Compared with conventional school sex education at age 13–14 y, this form of peer-led sex education was not associated with change in teenage abortions, but may have led to fewer teenage births and was popular with pupils. It merits consideration within broader teenage pregnancy prevention strategies. Trial registration: ISRCTN
Extrusion of Thermoplastic Starch: Effect of “Green” and Common Polyethylene on the Hydrophobicity Characteristics  [PDF]
Muhammad Pervaiz, Philip Oakley, Mohini Sain
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.512085
Abstract: Novel plastics that are biodegradable, environmentally benign, and made from renewable natural resources are currently being researched as alternatives to traditional petroleum-based plastics. One such plastic, thermoplastic starch (TPS) is produced from starch processed at high temperatures in the presence of plasticizers, such as water and glycerol. However, because of its hydrophilic nature, TPS exhibits poor mechanical properties when exposed to environmental conditions, such as rain or humidity. The overall objective of this research work was to produce a thermoplastic starch based material with low water absorption that may be used to replace petroleum-based plastics. With a recent emergence of “green” polyethylene (GPE), sourced from renewable feedstock, it has become possible to develop novel biodegradable polymers for various applications. In this work, GPE was melt blended with starch in three different ways; reactive extrusion of GPE and starch facilitated by maleic anhydride (MAH) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP), melt blending of GPE and starch by extrusion, and melt blending of maleated polyethylene and starch by extrusion. Comprehensive testing and analysis has shown that all methods reduced water absorption significantly with some variations across the board.
Do Patients Drink Enough Water? Actual Pure Water Intake Compared to the Theoretical Daily Rules of Drinking Eight 8-Ounce Glasses and Drinking Half Your Body Weight in Ounces  [PDF]
Paul A. Oakley, Melissa L. Baird
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711072
Abstract: Water is vital for virtually every bodily process, but many people don’t drink enough water. We assessed how much actual water, on average, was drank by 100 consecutive patients from a well-ness clinic. The average water intake was about five 8-ounce glasses of water a day. When compared to the “drink eight glasses of water a day” rule, our sample was 3 glasses short. When compared to the “drink half your body weight in ounces” rule, our sample was 6 glasses short. Chronic, unintentional dehydration is so common that it may be better to consider many “dehydration diseases” such as asthma and allergies as well as non-infectious conditions and chronic pains to be identified as “indicators of body thirst” and not the conditions that today are considered “diseases of unknown etiology”. Physiologically there are parameters of dehydration that can be measured prior to one feeling “thirsty”, and therefore, simply drinking “ad libitum” or by natural instinct may not be adequate. Patients need to be told to drink more water and to keep a mental daily tally to be sure to optimize their hydration status to better their health.
Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer
Keith M. Bellizzi,Noreen M. Aziz,Julia H. Rowland,Kathryn Weaver,Neeraj K. Arora,Ann S. Hamilton,Ingrid Oakley-Girvan,Gretchen Keel
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/478642
Abstract: Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age?=?75.7, SD?=?6.1), ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic) as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined) when comorbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for comorbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75–79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential comorbid burden among the older (75–79) minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential comorbid burden. 1. Introduction By 2030, nearly one in five US residents will be >65 years of age and this group is projected to reach 72 million by that year, a doubling of the number in 2008 [1]. During this period, it is estimated that the percentage of all cancers diagnosed in older adults and ethnic/racial minorities will increase from 61% to 70% and from 21% to 28%, respectively [2]. Historically, older adults and minorities have been underrepresented in cancer clinical trials which can ultimately lead to disparities in treatment and outcomes. An important outcome that has received little attention is the posttreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of older adults with cancer from minority backgrounds. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests that being a minority and old could have additive negative effects on health outcomes [3–5]. Understanding the post-treatment burden of older adults and minorities with cancer is a critical step to determine the services and resources required to serve this rapidly growing population. While the long-term surveillance of older adults and minorities with cancer is limited, evidence suggests physical and social functioning are the most common HRQOL domains affected by
Medical students' views about an undergraduate curriculum in psychiatry before and after clinical placements
Clare Oakley, Femi Oyebode
BMC Medical Education , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-8-26
Abstract: A questionnaire was distributed to medical students before they commenced their psychiatry placement and after they had completed it. The questionnaire considered the relevance of psychiatry to their future careers, the relevance of particular knowledge and skills, the utility of knowledge of psychiatric specialties and the utility of different settings for learning psychiatry.The students felt skills relevant to all doctors, such as assessment of suicide risk, were more important than more specialist psychiatric skills, such as the management of schizophrenia. They felt that knowledge of how psychiatric illnesses present in general practice was important and it was a useful setting in which to learn psychiatry. They thought that conditions that are commonly seen in the general hospital are important and that liaison psychiatry was useful.Two ways that medical students believe their teaching can be made more relevant to their future careers are highlighted in this study. Firstly, there is a need to focus on scenarios which students will commonly encounter in their initial years of employment. Secondly, psychiatry should be better integrated into the overall curriculum, with the opportunity for teaching in different settings. However, when developing curricula the need to listen to what students believe they should learn needs to be balanced against the necessity of teaching the fundamentals and principles of a speciality.Previous research has centred on the perceived negative attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and the implications for recruitment. It was found that encouragement from more senior doctors during a psychiatric attachment increases the number of students wanting to pursue psychiatry [1]. In addition to fostering enthusiasm among potential psychiatrists, it is critical that all future doctors have the skills and confidence to deal with people suffering from mental health problems. Half of all people with ill health in Western Europe have a
Ten Years of GWOT, the Failure of Democratization, and the Fallacy of
David Oakley,Pat Proctor
Journal of Strategic Security , 2012,
Abstract: October 7, 2011, marked a decade since the United States invaded Afghanistan and initiated the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). While most ten-year anniversary gifts involve aluminum, tin, or diamonds, the greatest gift U.S. policymakers can present American citizens is a reconsideration of the logic that guides America's counterterrorism strategy. Although the United States has successfully averted large-scale domestic terrorist attacks, its inability to grasp the nature of the enemy has cost it dearly in wasted resources and, more importantly, lost lives. Two of the most consistent and glaring policy flaws revolve around the concepts of filling "ungoverned spaces" and installing democracy by force.
On Certain Lagrangian Submanifolds of $S^2\times S^2$ and $C P^n$
Joel Oakley,Michael Usher
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We consider various constructions of monotone Lagrangian submanifolds of $C P^n, S^2\times S^2$, and quadric hypersurfaces of $C P^n$. In $S^2\times S^2$ and $C P^2$ we show that several different known constructions of exotic monotone tori yield results that are Hamiltonian isotopic to each other, in particular answering a question of Wu by showing that the monotone fiber of a toric degeneration model of $C P^2$ is Hamiltonian isotopic to the Chekanov torus. Generalizing our constructions to higher dimensions leads us to consider monotone Lagrangian submanifolds (typically not tori) of quadrics and of $C P^n$ which can be understood either in terms of the geodesic flow on $T^*S^n$ or in terms of the Biran circle bundle construction. Unlike previously-known monotone Lagrangian submanifolds of closed simply connected symplectic manifolds, many of our higher-dimensional Lagrangian submanifolds are provably displaceable.
Management-Oriented Classification of Mitral Valve Regurgitation
Reida El Oakley,Aijaz Shah
ISRN Cardiology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/858714
Risk and Protective Factors in Child Development and the Development of Resilience  [PDF]
Ann Buchanan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24025
Abstract: It was the distinguished UK psychiatrist, Professor Sir Michael Rutter, who first promoted the idea that there were risk and protective factors within the wider ecological framework of the child which profoundly influenced the child’s development. This paper based on 20 years of research at the Centre for Research into Parenting and Children at University of Oxford will explore some of these risk and protective factors and demonstrate how it is possible to artificially create protective conditions for those children who do not have them naturally, and to promote their resilience, so necessary in this fast changing world.
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