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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223400 matches for " Ann C. Kennedy "
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Sorption of Tannin and Related Phenolic Compounds and Effects on Extraction of Soluble-N in Soil Amended with Several Carbon Sources
Jonathan J. Halvorson,Hero T. Gollany,Ann C. Kennedy,Ann E. Hagerman,Javier M. Gonzalez,Stewart B. Wuest
Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture2010052
Abstract: Some tannins sorb to soil and reduce soluble-N. However, we know little about how they interact with organic amendments in soil. Soil (0–5 cm) from plots, which were amended annually with various carbon substances, was treated with water (control) or solutions containing tannins or related phenolic subunits. Treatments included a proanthocyanidin, catechin, tannic acid, β-1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG), gallic acid, and methyl gallate. We applied solutions of each of these materials to soil and measured soluble-C and -N in supernatants after application and following extraction with hot water (16 h, 80 °C). Sorption was low for non-tannin phenolics, methyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin, and unaffected by amendment. Sorption of tannins, proanthocyanidin, tannic acid, and PGG, was higher and greater in plots amended with biosolids or manure. Extraction of soluble-N was not affected by amendment or by catechin, proanthocyanidin, or methyl gallate, but was reduced with PGG, tannic acid and gallic acid. Soil cation exchange capacity increased following treatment with PGG but decreased with gallic acid, irrespective of amendment. Tannins entering soil may thus influence soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling but their impact may be influenced by the composition of soil organic matter.
Comparison of Raw Dairy Manure Slurry and Anaerobically Digested Slurry as N Sources for Grass Forage Production
Olivia E. Saunders,Ann-Marie Fortuna,Joe H. Harrison,Elizabeth Whitefield,Craig G. Cogger,Ann C. Kennedy,Andy I. Bary
International Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/101074
Abstract: We conducted a 3-year field study to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate concentrations relative to urea. Annual N applications ranged from 600?kg?N?ha?1 in 2009 to 300?kg?N?ha?1 in 2011. Forage yield and N uptake were similar across slurry treatments. Soil nitrate concentrations were greatest at the beginning of the fall leaching season, and did not differ among slurry treatments or application methods. Urea-fertilized plots had the highest soil nitrate concentrations but did not consistently have greatest forage biomass. ANR for the slurry treatments ranged from 35 to 70% when calculations were based on ammonium-N concentration, compared with 31 to 65% for urea. Slurry ANR calculated on a total N basis was lower (15 to 40%) due to lower availability of the organic N in the slurries. No consistent differences in soil microbial biomass or other biological indicators were observed. Anaerobically digested slurry supported equal forage production and similar N use efficiency when compared to raw dairy slurry. 1. Introduction There is a need for a set of best management practices that addresses how to utilize the growing quantity of reactive nitrogen (N) produced by livestock operations. Animal agriculture in the United States has become more specialized with farms consolidating and growing in size [1]. The number of dairy farms has decreased by 94% since 1960, but the number of animals has remained constant [2]. Animal consolidation has created challenges with respect to on-farm N surplus, waste management and nutrient loading in the environment [3, 4]. Annually in the United States, more than 5800?Mg of manure N is produced [5]. One approach to ameliorate negative environmental impacts associated with animal manures is through adoption of anaerobic digestion technologies to treat farm-generated manures and food processing wastes [6–9]. Digestion of wastes can provide a stable and consistent source of nutrients comparable to inorganic fertilizers such as urea. Anaerobic digestion converts organic carbon into methane used to generate electricity, and it also converts organic N to plant available ammonium ( ), increasing the ratio of /total N in the effluent [10]. Carbon is removed during both the methane production and fiber removal processes, resulting in a smaller C?:?N ratio of the effluent [11]. Therefore, digested
Scaling Symmetry and Integrable Spherical Hydrostatics  [PDF]
Sidney Bludman, Dallas C. Kennedy
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44069

Any symmetry reduces a second-order differential equation to a first integral: variational symmetries of the action (exemplified by central field dynamics) lead to conservation laws, but symmetries of only the equations of motion (exemplified by scale-invariant hydrostatics) yield first-order non-conservation laws between invariants. We obtain these non- conservation laws by extending Noethers Theorem to non-variational symmetries and present an innovative variational formulation of spherical adiabatic hydrostatics. For the scale-invariant case, this novel synthesis of group theory, hydrostatics, and astrophysics allows us to recover all the known properties of polytropes and define a core radius, inside which polytropes of index n share a common core mass density structure, and outside of which their envelopes differ. The Emden solutions (regular solutions of the Lane-Emden equation) are obtained, along with useful approximations. An appendix discusses the n = 3 polytrope in order to emphasize how the same mechanical structure allows different thermal structures in relativistic degenerate white dwarfs and zero age main sequence stars.

MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group
Nicholas C Harvey, Kassim Javaid, Nicholas Bishop, Stephen Kennedy, Aris T Papageorghiou, Robert Fraser, Saurabh V Gandhi, Inez Schoenmakers, Ann Prentice, Cyrus Cooper
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-13
Abstract: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented.Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years.As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood
ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data
Brett A. McKinney, Bill C. White, Diane E. Grill, Peter W. Li, Richard B. Kennedy, Gregory A. Poland, Ann L. Oberg
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081527
Abstract: Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php.
The Dutch canon debate. Reflections of an American. De Arena. Debat over de zin of onzin van een nationale canon
J.C. Kennedy
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2006,
Abstract: James C. Kennedy, The Dutch Canon Debate: Reflections of an American This article offers an overview of the American debate over the ‘History Standards’ in the mid-1990s as a spring board for reflection on current Dutch efforts to develop a historical ‘canon.’ For several reasons, various Dutch attempts at canon-building are more solidly traditionalist than is the case in the United States. This stems in part from the fact that for along time there has been an American ‘canon’ about which to argue, making the past contested ground. Perhaps the greatest advantage of having a ‘canon’ in the Netherlands is to stimulate Dutch historians to offer opposing interpretations of the national past.
The Thermodynamics and Economics of Waste
Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: Natural resource use and waste production, disposal, and reuse in human economies are treated in their economic, technological and thermodynamic aspects. The physical nature of economic production, consumption, saving, and waste is compared and contrasted with non-human ecologies in terms of entropy production and evolutionary complexity.
CPT- and B-Violation: The p-pbar Sector
Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1142/S0217732399000894
Abstract: The CPT symmetry of relativistic quantum field theory requires the total lifetimes of particles and antiparticles be equal. Detection of pbar lifetime shorter than tau_p > O(10^32) yr would signal breakdown of CPT invariance, in combination with B-violation. The best current limit on tau_pbar, inferred from cosmic ray measurements, is about one Myr, placing lower limits on CPT-violating scales that depend on the exact mechanism. Paths to CPT breakdown within and outside ordinary quantum mechanics are sketched. Many of the limiting CPT-violating scales in pbar decay lie within the weak-to-Planck range.
Electroweak Flavor-Conserving Gauge Processes: Virtual Effects
Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: Summary of electroweak Standard Model, including aspects of gauge summetry, symmetry breaking, and quantum radiative corrections. Implications of precise electroweak measurements for Standard Model and hypothetical non-Standard states and interactions. Status of exact and approximate symmetries of the Standard Model. The minimal electroweak Standard Model satisfies the present data well, if the effect of the known top quark mass is included. Contribution to the APS/DPF Drell Panel Study of American High Energy Physics.
Seesaw Neutrino Mass Ratios with Radiative Corrections
D. C. Kennedy
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(93)91509-L
Abstract: In the canonical up-quark seesaw, the ratios of light neutrino masses are more easily predicted than the masses themselves. Under explicitly enumerated neccesary but minimal assumptions, these ratios are obtained, including radiative corrections. The predictions remain uncertain only by the top quark mass and triviality mass limit, and the power law of the seesaw. The tau neutrino is specially affected by the non-linear effect of the heavy top quark mass. The derived ratios have application to solar, atmospheric, and cosmological neutrinos and laboratory neutrino oscillation searches. The seesaw with charged lepton masses instead is briefly considered. Submitted to Phys Lett B.
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