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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 941 matches for " Ankit Goel "
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Experimental study on waste heat recovery from an IC engine using thermoelectric technology
Kumar Ramesh C.,Sonthalia Ankit,Goel Rahul
Thermal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/tsci100518053k
Abstract: A major part of the heat supplied in an IC engine is not realized as work output, but dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. If this waste heat energy is tapped and converted into usable energy, the overall efficiency of the engine can be improved. The percentage of energy rejected to the environment through exhaust gas which can be potentially recovered is approximately 30-40% of the energy supplied by the fuel depending on engine load. Thermoelectric modules (TEM) which are used as Thermoelectric generators (TEG) are solid state devices that are used to convert thermal energy from a temperature gradient to electrical energy and it works on basic principle of Seebeck effect. This paper demonstrates the potential of thermoelectric generation. A detailed experimental work was carried to study the performance of TEG under various engine operating conditions. A heat exchanger with 18 TEG modules was designed and tested in the engine test rig. Thermoelectric modules were selected according to the temperature difference between exhaust gases side and the engine coolant side. Various designs of the heat exchangers were modeled using CAD and analysis was done using a CFD code which is commercially available to study the flow & heat transfer characteristics. From the simulated results it was found that rectangular shaped heat exchanger met our requirements and also satisfied the space and weight constraint. A rectangular heat exchanger was fabricated and the thermo electric modules were incorporated on the heat exchanger for performance analysis. The study also revealed that energy can be tapped efficiently from the engine exhaust and in near future TEG can reduce the size of the alternator or eliminate them in automobiles.
NON INVASIVE THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE BY REVERSE IONTOPHORESIS
Goel Ankit,Saini Vipin,Nair Anroop
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is highly required for drugs possessing narrow therapeutic index as a slight variation in the therapeutic range could result in no or low clinical efficiency or causes significant side effects or high risk of toxicity. In recent days, reverse iontophoresis technique has been attempted for the non invasive drug monitoring. Typically, it applies a low electric current through a pair of skin electrodes to promote the transport of both charged and neutral molecules. Transdermal iontophoretic extraction of propranolol was carried out and the study involves effect of different solvents having their different pH values on the iontophoretic extraction, effect of different voltages on the iontophoretic extraction, effect of different permeation enhancers on the permeability of propranolol hydrochloride and the effect of stratum corneum removal on the permeability of propranolol. Iontophoretic diffusion was carried out in vitro using full thickness rat skin. The efficient quantity of propranolol was collected at cathode by electromigration. The correlation between the extracted fluxes of propranolol and its subdermal concentration was found to be adequate. The values of extraction fluxes didn’t attain a steady state throughout the experiment. The decrease in the solvent pH doesn’t affect the transdermal extraction of propranolol. The decrease in the voltage causes diminishes in the iontophoretic fluxes. The application of permeation enhancers especially propylene glycol causes significantly increase in the iontophoretic fluxes of propranolol. Thus it is concluded that propranolol hydrochloride can be quantitatively extracted by reverse iontophoresis in varying conditions of subdermal concentration.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis
Anroop B Nair,Ankit Goel,Shashi Prakash,Ashok Kumar
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged aswell as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that severalproducts are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring.
Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery-An Overview and Current Status  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.310100
Abstract: Single incision laproscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laproscopy. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery term coined by a Consortium in 2005 remains a research technique with few clinical cases. Single incision surgery offers advantage of better cosmesis, reduced incisions, lesser hernias, decreased pain and infections. Long learning curves and cost of instrumentation are the difficulties encountered in its propagation. Single incision laproscopic surgery is an evolving technique for advanced laproscopic centers. This article outlines the overview of devices and instruments and the techniques, feasibility of single incision laproscopic surgery.
Comparative Study of Clinical Manifestation, Plain Film Radiography and Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Maxillofacial Trauma  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2015.54008
Abstract: Objective: Maxillofacial injuries are one of the commonest injuries encountered. Roentgenographic evaluation of maxillofacial trauma is of prime importance for diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Study Design: Forty patients were evaluated in the prospective four-year study. We studied and evaluated the demography and diagnostic efficacy of clinical, plain radiography, and computed scan in maxillofacial trauma. Result: Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries. Patients having multiple fractures, mandibular fractures were the commonest. Conclusion: Computed tomography proved a useful adjunct in midfacial trauma.
Effect of PVP, PVA and POLE surfactants on the size of iridium nanoparticles  [PDF]
Anjali Goel, Neetu Rani
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2012.23010
Abstract: Commonly transition metal nano particle are synthesized by physical, chemical or electrochemical methods. In the present work colloidal iridium nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical oxidation method with different surfactants like poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly oxyethylene lauryl ether (POLE). It was found that shape and size of Ir-nano particles resulted were related to kind of capping agent (surfactant) used. The characterization of the synthesized nano particle has been carried out by UV-vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. UV-vis and FT-IR confirm the oxidation of IrCl3 into IrO2 while XRD confirms the amorphous nature of the iridium nanoparticles synthesized. The morphology and size of the particle were confirmed by TEM. The average particle size determined by Scherrer equation was about 4.12 nm to 4.23 nm with PVP, 2.74 to 3.36 nm with PVA and 20.41 to 42.25 nm with POLE. Poly oxyethylene lauryl ether particles were not further analyzed because of their large size and less stability. Further particle size was confirmed with TEM, which was 4.5 nm with PVP and 7.0 nm with PVA. The particles are spherical with no agglomeration tendency.
Testability Estimation of Framework Based Applications  [PDF]
Noopur Goel, Manjari Gupta
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.511097
Abstract: Quality of software systems is highly demanded in today’s scenario. Highly testable system enhances the reliability also. More than 50% of test effort-time and cost are used to produce a highly testable system. Thus, design-for-testability is needed to reduce the test effort. In order to enhance the quality, productivity and reduced cost of the software organizations are promoting to produce the reuse-oriented products. Incorporating reuse technology in both aspects-software development process and test process may payoff many folds. Keeping this view, our study focus the testability of the object-oriented framework based software systems and identify that flexibility at the variable points of the object-oriented framework, chosen for framework instantiation, greatly affects the testability of object-oriented framework based software at each level of testing. In the current paper, we propose a testability model considering the flexible aspect of the variable point to estimate testability in the early phase, requirement analysis phase, of development process of the framework based software. The proposed model helps to improve the testability of the software before the implementation starts thus reducing the overall development cost.
A Multiobjective Optimization Method for Designing M-Channel NPR Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Image Compression  [PDF]
Anamika Jain, Aditya Goel
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.72008
Abstract: This paper proposes a method to design multichannel cosine modulated filter bank for image compression using multiobjective optimization technique. The design problem is a combination of stopband residual energy, least square error of the overall transfer function of the filter bank, coding gain with dc leakage free condition as constraint. The proposed algorithm uses Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) to minimize the mutually contradictory objective function by minimizing filter tap weights of prototype filter. The algorithm solves this problem by searching solutions that achieve the best compromise between the different objectives criteria. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of coding gain and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). Simulation results on different images are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for image compression application.
Mono-Therapy versus Poly-Therapy: Ten Years Indian Experience on Various Seizure Disorders  [PDF]
Deepak Goel, Manish Mittal
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.55034
Abstract: Objectives: To find out prescription patterns and seizure freedom with different mono-, duo- and poly-therapies used in various seizure disorders in Indian setting. Material and Methods: Subjects with seizures, not responding to first antiepileptic drug, were evaluated prospectively for a period of 6 months. Patients on various dual antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescriptions were prospectively analyzed for 1) the pattern and frequency of different duo-therapies; 2) etiological profile of patients in duo-therapy prescription; and 3) frequency of seizure freedom on various duo-therapy groups. Results: Among 2542 patients, 293 (11.5%) lost in follow-up and thus, 2249 (88.5%) were followed. 1324 (58.9%) had seizure freedom on mono-therapy, 532 (23.7%) required duo-therapy and only 45 (2%) were better controlled on poly-therapy. Among the subjects, who were on mono-therapy, Carbamazepine/Oxcarbazepine was the most commonly prescribed in 1285 (50.55%) patients as first drug followed by Valproate compound and Phenytoin. The most common duo-therapy used was combination of Valproate with Lamotregine, followed by Phenytoin and Phenobarbitone. Other mono-therapy and combinations are given in this paper. Conclusions: Duo-therapy was required and found to be effective in 23.7% of Indian patients with epilepsy. Selection of appropriate two drug combination is based on individual approach and overall clinical profile of patient.
Microfilaruria in a patient of intermittent chyluria
Seth Ankit
Journal of Cytology , 2009,
Abstract: Besides peripheral blood smears, microfilariae have been described in aspirate smears from different sites. Identification of microfilariae in the chylous urine of otherwise asymptomatic filarial patients has been rarely described. One such case is presented.
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