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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3701 matches for " Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh "
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Search for a molecular mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs in living organisms
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
International Journal of High Dilution Research , 2012,
Abstract: The mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs, particularly those diluted beyond Avogadro ¢a a ¢s limit, is still a debatable issue and various hypotheses in this regard have been advocated by many. In our studies since 1980, we found that certain ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies could produce ameliorative effects in various model test organisms like bacteria, fungus, mice and human beings, while the succussed alcohol (placebo) could not. These drugs could antagonize/ameliorate several types of experimentally induced tumors/cancers in mice as evident from electron microscopic studies and certain specific cancer biomarkers. They also demonstrated significant effect on cell viability and apoptotic effect (mostly mitochondria mediated) on cancer cells in culture (also in experimental mice), as revealed from various assays like AnnexinV-FITC, TUNEL, DNA fragmentation, DAPI, COMET, HOECHST 33258, Rhodamine 123 etc while the succussed alcohol ( ¢a “vehicle ¢a ) failed to show such effect. Expression of some key signal proteins and mRNA expressions like Bcl2 family proteins, Cytochrome c, Apaf 1, PARP, Caspase family, p53 and p38 etc in experimental mice model could be modulated by potentized homeopathic drugs. Under arsenic stress, the bacterium Escherichia coli, and the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and macrophage cells in culture responded favorably to the treatment of potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album 30C and homeopathically prepared Glucose 30C, as evident from modulation of several parameters like ROS accumulation, SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and expression level of certain relevant genes (Ars B, pts-G genes using real-time PCR) denoting detoxification, mainly via arsenic removal mechanism and suitable enzymatic modulation. Ultra-highly diluted potentized drugs (at potency 30C or above) could demonstrate protective changes simultaneously in multiple parameters (most of them under genetic control) of study, and their action continued for sometime even after the drugs were withdrawn; this indicates the ability of the drugs to trigger ¢a “gene action ¢a involving up-regulation or down-regulation of a cascade of downstream genes, getting the recovery process into motion. The convincing evidences that support a ¢a “gene regulatory hypothesis ¢a to explain the molecular mechanisms of action of the potentized drugs will be discussed in the light of some of our recent experimental findings on fungus, bacteria and bacteriophages.
Analysis of the capability of ultra-highly diluted glucose to increase glucose uptake in arsenite-stressed bacteria Escherichia coli
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Whether ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies can affect living systems is questionable. Therefore, this study sees value in the analysis of whether homeopathically diluted glucose 30C has any effect on Escherichia coli exposed to arsenite stress.Methods: E. coli were cultured to their log phase in standard Luria-Bertani medium and then treated with either 1 mmol/L or 2 mmol/L sodium arsenite, with or without supplementation of either 1% or 3% glucose, an ultra-highly diluted and agitated ethanolic solution (70%) of glucose (diluted 1060 times), glucose 30C or 70% ethanol (placebo) in the medium. Glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase and glucokinase, membrane potential, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and expression of glucose permease in E. coli were analyzed at two different time intervals. Arsenic content in E. coli (intracellular) and in the spent medium (extracellular) was also determined. Results: In arsenite-exposed E. coli, the glucose uptake increased along with decreases in the specific activities of hexokinase and glucokinase, intracellular ATP and membrane potential and an increase in the gene expression level of glucose permease. Glucose uptake increased further by addition of 1%, 3% or ultra-highly diluted glucose in the medium, but not by the placebo. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the efficacy of the ultra-highly diluted and agitated glucose in mimicking the action of actual glucose supplementation and its ability to modulate expressions of hexokinase and glucokinase enzymes and glucose permease genes, thereby validating the efficacy of ultra-high dilutions used in homeopathy.
Polymeric nanoparticle encapsulation of a naturally occurring plant scopoletin and its effects on human melanoma cell A375
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: We formulated nano-encapsulation of a naturally occurring coumarin — scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin, HMC, C10H8O4), isolated from plant Gelsemium sempervirens having anticancer potentials, with a bio-adhesive agent — polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and tested if its cellular uptake, bioavailability and apoptotic (anticancer) potentials could thus be increased vis--vis unencapsulated HMC.Methods: A375 melanoma cancer cells were used for testing cellular entry and anticancer potentials of HMC and nano-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin (NHMC) through several standard protocols. Characterization of NHMC was done by dynamic light scattering for determination of particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. Surface morphology of nanoparticles was determined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.Results: HMC was encapsulated with more than 85% entrapment efficiency, the average particle size of NHMC being less than 110 nm and a PDI 0.237, which resulted in enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. NHMC showed a faster cellular uptake (15 min) than its unencapsulated counterpart (30 min). Study of signal molecules through mRNA expressions revealed that NHMC caused down-regulation of cyclin-D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), survivin and Stat-3, and up-regulation of p53 and caspase-3, that in turn induced a greater number of apoptosis vis--vis unencapsulated HMC.Conclusion: The formulation yielded small-sized NHMC by biodegradable PLGA that took less time for cellular entry, and caused more apoptosis to cancer cells, but apparently had negligible cytotoxicity against normal skin cells. Nano-encapsulation of bioactive plant ingredients can be a strategy worth trying for designing effective chemopreventive drug products.
Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic resistance gene in arsenine-exposed bacteria Escherichia coli
Arnab De,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2012,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine if potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can reduce sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli.METHODS: E. coli were exposed to low arsenite insult after they grew up to log phase in standard Luria-Bertani medium. E. coli were treated with 1 or 2 mmol/L sodium arsenite alone (control), or Ars Alb 30C was added to the medium of a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (drug-treated), or homeopathically agitated alcohol was added to the medium containing a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (placebo-treated). A sub-set of untreated E. coli served as the negative control. Glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and free glutathione content and expressions of arsB and ptsG gene in normal control, sodium arsenite-treated, drug-treated and placebo-treated E. coli were analyzed. Treatments were blinded and randomized.RESULTS: In sodium arsenite-treated E. coli, glucose uptake, intracellular ROS, LPO and DNA damage increased along with decrease in the specific activities of hexokinase, SOD and catalase, intracellular ATP and free glutathione contents and cell membrane potential and growth, and there were increases in expression levels of arsB gene and ptsG gene. Ars Alb 30C administration reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by inhibiting generation of ROS and increasing tolerance to arsenite toxicity and cell growth.CONCLUSION: Ars Alb 30C ameliorated arsenic toxicity and DNA damage, validating efficacy of ultra-highly diluted remedies used in homeopathy.
An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh,Naoual Boujedaini
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Millions of people are at risk of groundwater arsenic contamination, and there is no known remedy that can effectively remove the symptoms of prolonged arsenic poisoning. A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 (Ars Alb LM 0/3), is claimed in homeopathic literature to have the ability to treat symptoms similar to that of arsenic poisoning.Objective: This study examines whether Ars Alb LM 0/3 could provide some degree of amelioration for the victims living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available. Design, setting, participants and interventions: This study was carried out on volunteers living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available. Twenty-eight volunteers from the village of Dasdiya, in Haringhata block under Nadia District, West Bengal, India, an arsenic-contaminated village where wells contain 55 to 95 μg/L arsenic, were selected to undertake a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects provided samples of blood and urine before and after 2 months of taking either “verum” or “placebo”. Another 18 subjects living in an arsenic-free village, served as the negative controls.Main outcome measures: Samples of blood and urine from the subjects were assayed for arsenic content, according to various toxicity biomarkers and pathophysiological parameters. Results: Out of the original 28 subjects, only 14 subjects provided samples while the other 14 dropped out. There were elevated levels of arsenic in the blood and urine, alkaline and acid phosphatases, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione activities and increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contents, whereas there were decreased levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contents, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and packed cell volume in the subjects. After 2 months of homeopathic remedy administration, the verum-fed subjects showed positive modulations within these parameters with slight lowering of matrix metalloproteinase activity as compared with the placebo group.Conclusion: Ars Alb LM 0/3 shows potential for use in high-risk arsenic villages as an interim treatment for amelioration of arsenic toxicity until more extensive medical treatment and facilities can be provided to the numerous victims of arsenic poisoning.
Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C positively modulates protein biomarkers and gene expressions in Saccharomyces cerevisae exposed to arsenate
Durba Das,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: This study examines if homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can elicit ameliorative responses in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to arsenate.Methods: The yeast S. cerevisiae 699 was cultured in a standard yeast extract peptone dextrose broth medium. It was exposed to the final concentration of 0.15 mmol/L arsenate for two intervals, 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cell viability was determined along with the assessment of several toxicity biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiol (GSH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, expressions of relevant stress transcription activators like Yap-1 and Msn 2, and mRNA expression of yeast caspase-1 (Yca-1) were also measured. Results: Treatment of arsenate increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS accumulation and expressions of Yap-1, Msn 2 and Yca-1 and decreased GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD. Ars Alb 30C administration decreased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage, ROS formation and Msn 2 and Yca-1 expressions and increased cell viability, GSH, G6PDH, CAT and SOD significantly (P<0.05), except for a slight increase in Yap-1 expression.Conclusion: Ars Alb 30C triggers ameliorative responses in S. cerevisiae exposed to arsenate.
Anticancer potentials of root extract of Polygala senega against benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung cancer in mice
Saili Paul,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate anticancer potentials of Polygala senega on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups with each containing six animals. Group 1 served as control, and the animals received olive oil as vehicle. Group 2 animals were treated with B[a]P (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil) orally twice a week for four consecutive weeks. Group 3 animals were fed B[a]P as in group 2 and 48% alcohol (since the vehicle of the remedy was alcohol). Group 4 animals were B[a]P-intoxicated mice (as in group 2) which were additionally fed ethanolic extract of Polygala senega (EEPS) daily for 16 weeks. EEPS treatment started after the first dose of B[a]P. Group 5 animals were treated with EEPS alone for 16 weeks to test cytotoxicity of EEPS if any. Mice were sacrificed after 16 weeks and the following parameters were assessed: the anti-oxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay, tumor incidence, lung weight and body weight, DNA damage evaluation by comet assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); toxicity biomarkers like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total thiol content were also detected. Results: Treatment with EEPS increased the final body weight and significantly decreased the lung weight in group 4 mice (P<0.01) compared with group 3 mice. Comet assay showed that EEPS-treated mice in group 4 presented a decrease of DNA damage significantly (P<0.01) in lung tissues. There was a significant increase observed in the level of p53 in group 4 as compared with group 3 (P<0.01) detected by ELISA. A highly significant increase in tissue LPO with concomitant decrease in the activity of anti-oxidants was observed in group 2 and group 3 mice (P<0.05) compared with the control mice. These adverse changes were reversed significantly in group 4 mice (P<0.01).Conclusion: Chemopreventive potentials of Polygala senega against chemically induced lung cancer in mice are confirmed.
Homeopathic mother tincture of Phytolacca decandra induces apoptosis in skin melanoma cells by activating caspase-mediated signaling via reactive oxygen species elevation
Samrat Ghosh,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Journal of Integrative Medicine (JIM) , 2013,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Preventive measures against skin melanoma like chemotherapy are useful but suffer from chronic side effects and drug resistance. Ethanolic extract of Phytolacca decandra (PD), used in homeopathy for the treatment of various ailments like chronic rheumatism, regular conjunctivitis, psoriasis, and in some skin diseases was tested for its possible anticancer potential.METHODS: Cytotoxicity of the drug was tested by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on both normal (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and A375 cells. Fluorescence microscopic study of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained cells was conducted for DNA fragmentation assay, and changes in cellular morphology, if any, were also recorded. Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay was done to evaluate the percentages of apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, if any, and expression study of apoptotic genes also were evaluated to pin-point the actual events of apoptosis. RESULTS: Results showed that PD administration caused a remarkable reduction in proliferation of A375 cells, without showing much cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Generation of ROS and DNA damage, which made the cancer cells prone to apoptosis, were found to be enhanced in PD-treated cells. These results were duly supported by the analytical data on expression of different cellular and nuclear proteins, as for example, by down-regulation of Akt and Bcl-2, up-regulation of p53, Bax and caspase 3, and an increase in number of cell deaths by apoptosis in A375 cells.CONCLUSION: Overall results demonstrate anticancer potentials of PD on A375 cells through activation of caspase-mediated signaling and ROS generation.
Comparative Efficacy of Pre-feeding, Post-feeding and Combined Pre- and Post-feeding of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Mercurius Solubilis, in Ameliorating Genotoxic Effects Produced by Mercuric Chloride in Mice
Swapna Datta,Surjyo Jyoti Biswas,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neh025
Abstract: Mercury and its derivatives have become an alarming environmental problem, necessitating the search for effective antagonists, including homeopathic drugs, which are generally used in micro doses and are devoid of any palpable side-effects. On the basis of homeopathic similia principle, two potencies of Mercurius solubilis (Merc Sol-30 and Merc Sol-200) were tested by three administrative modes, i.e. pre-feeding, post-feeding and combined pre- and post-feeding, for their possible efficacy in ameliorating mercuric chloride-induced genotoxicity in mice. Healthy mice, Mus musculus, were intraperitoneally injected with 0.06% solution of mercuric chloride at the rate of 1?ml/100?g of body weight, and assessed for genotoxic effects through conventional endpoints. i.e. chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head abnormality, keeping suitable controls. Mercuric chloride-treated mice were divided into three sub-groups, which were orally administered with the drug prior to, after and both prior to and after injection of mercuric chloride, and their genotoxic effects were analysed at specific intervals of fixation. Mercuric chloride treatment generally produced more chromosome aberations, micronuclei and sperm head anomaly in mice, but the mitotic index appeared to be slightly reduced. While chromosome aberations, micronuclei and sperm head anomaly were generally reduced in the drug-fed series, the mitotic index showed an apparent increase. In most cases, the combined pre- and post-feeding mode appeared to show the maximum amelioration, followed by post-feeding and pre-feeding, in that order. The amelioration by Merc Sol-200 appeared to be slightly more pronounced. We conclude that potentized homeopathic drugs can serve as possible anti-genotoxic agents against specific environmental mutagens, including toxic heavy metals.
Amelioration of Carcinogen-Induced Toxicity in Mice by Administration of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200
Nandini Bhattacharjee,Surajit Pathak,Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem067
Abstract: To examine if a potentized homeopathic drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200 (Nat Sulph-200) has protective potentials against hepatocarcinogenesis, liver tumors were induced in mice through chronic feeding of P-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB; initiator of hepatocarcinogenesis) and phenobarbital (PB; promoter). Mice were divided into five sub-groups: fed normal low protein diet (Gr. I, normal control); fed normal low protein plus alcohol-200 (vehicle of the homeopathic remedy) (Gr. II); fed diet mixed with 0.06% p-DAB plus 0.05% PB (Gr. III); fed diet and carcinogens like Gr.III, plus alcohol 200 (positive control for drug fed mice) (Gr. IV) and fed diet and carcinogens like Gr. III, plus Natrum Sulphuiricum-200 (Gr. V; drug fed). Mice were sacrificed at day 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and day 120 for study of cytogenetical endpoints like chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), mitotic index (MI) and sperm head anomaly (SHA) and biochemical toxicity parameters like aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), acid (AcP) and alkaline (AlkP) phosphatases, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Less number of liver tumors were observed in Gr. V (drug fed) mice. Administration of Nat Sulph 200 reduced genomic damage, activities of AcP, AlkP, AST, ALT, LPO and increased GSH content. Therefore, independent replication of the study by others is encouraged.
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