Abstract:
We study the dynamics of some uniform learning strategy limits or a probabilistic version of the "Kolkata Paise Restaurant" problem, where N agents choose among N equally priced but differently ranked restaurants every evening such that each agent can get dinner in the best possible ranked restaurant (each serving only one customer and the rest arriving there going without dinner that evening). We consider the learning to be uniform among the agents and assume that each follow the same probabilistic strategy dependent on the information of the past successes in the game. The numerical results for utilization of the restaurants in some limiting cases are analytically examined.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of the "Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem". The problem is the following: In each period, N agents have to choose between N restaurants. Agents have a common ranking of the restaurants. Restaurants can only serve one customer. When more than one customer arrives at the same restaurant, one customer is chosen at random and is served; the others do not get the service. We first introduce the one-shot versions of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem which we call one-shot KPR games. We then study the dynamics of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem (which is a repeated game version of any given one shot KPR game) for large N. For statistical analysis, we explore the long time steady state behavior. In many such models with myopic agents we get under-utilization of resources, that is, we get a lower aggregate payoff compared to the social optimum. We study a number of myopic strategies, focusing on the average occupation fraction of restaurants.

Abstract:
Firm growth process in the developing economies is known to produce divergence in their growth path giving rise to bimodality in the size distribution. Similar bimodality has been observed in wealth distribution as well. Here, we introduce a modified kinetic exchange model which can reproduce such features. In particular, we will show numerically that a nonlinear retention rate (or savings propensity) causes this bimodality. This model can accommodate binary trading as well as the whole system-side trading thus making it more suitable to explain the non-standard features of wealth distribution as well as firm size distribution.

Abstract:
Kinetic exchange models have been successful in explaining the shape of the income/wealth distribution in the economies. However, such models usually make some ad-hoc assumptions when it comes to determining the savings factor. Here, we examine a few models in and out of the domain of standard neo-classical economics to explain the savings behavior of the agents. A number of new results are derived and the rest conform with those obtained earlier. Connections are established between the reinforcement choice and strategic choice models with the usual kinetic exchange models.

Abstract:
We propose a stochastic map model of economic dynamics. In the last decade, an array of observations in economics has been investigated in the econophysics literature, a major example being the universal features of inequality in terms of income and wealth. Another area of inquiry is the formation of opinion in a society. The proposed model attempts to produce positively skewed distributions and the power law distributions as has been observed in the real data of income and wealth. Also, it shows a non-trivial phase transition in the opinion of a society (opinion formation). A number of physical models also generates similar results. In particular, the kinetic exchange models have been especially successful in this regard. Therefore, we compare the results obtained from these two approaches and discuss a number of new features and drawbacks of this model.

Abstract:
We address the issue of the distribution of firm size. To this end we propose a model of firms in a closed, conserved economy populated with zero-intelligence agents who continuously move from one firm to another. We then analyze the size distribution and related statistics obtained from the model. Our ultimate goal is to reproduce the well known statistical features obtained from the panel study of the firms i.e., the power law in size (in terms of income and/or employment), the Laplace distribution in the growth rates and the slowly declining standard deviation of the growth rates conditional on the firm size. First, we show that the model generalizes the usual kinetic exchange models with binary interaction to interactions between an arbitrary number of agents. When the number of interacting agents is in the order of the system itself, it is possible to decouple the model. We provide some exact results on the distributions. Our model easily reproduces the power law. The fluctuations in the growth rate falls with increasing size following a power law (with an exponent 1 whereas the data suggests that the exponent is around 1/6). However, the distribution of the difference of the firm-size in this model has Laplace distribution whereas the real data suggests that the difference of the log sizes has the same distribution.

Abstract:
We consider the \emph{functional index coding problem} over an error-free broadcast network in which a source generates a set of messages and there are multiple receivers, each holding a set of functions of source messages in its cache, called the \emph{Has-set}, and demands to know another set of functions of messages, called the \emph{Want-set}. Cognizant of the receivers' \emph{Has-sets}, the source aims to satisfy the demands of each receiver by making coded transmissions, called a \emph{functional index code}. The objective is to minimize the number of such transmissions required. The restriction a receiver's demands pose on the code is represented via a constraint called the \emph{generalized exclusive law} and obtain a code using the \emph{confusion graph} constructed using these constraints. Bounds on the size of an optimal code based on the parameters of the confusion graph are presented. Next, we consider the case of erroneous transmissions and provide a necessary and sufficient condition that an FIC must satisfy for correct decoding of desired functions at each receiver and obtain a lower bound on the length of an error-correcting FIC.

Abstract:
While feasibility and obtaining a solution of a given network coding problem are well studied, the decoding procedure and complexity have not garnered much attention. We consider the decoding problem in a network wherein the sources generate multiple messages and the sink nodes demand some or all of the source messages. We consider both linear and non-linear network codes over a finite field and propose to use the sum-product (SP) algorithm over Boolean semiring for decoding at the sink nodes in order to reduce the computational complexity. We use traceback to further lower the computational complexity incurred by SP decoding. We also define and identify a sufficient condition for fast decodability of a network code at a sink that demands all the source messages.

Abstract:
We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.

Abstract:
This paper attempts to find out numerically the distribution of the queue-length ratio in the context of a model of preferential attachment. Here we consider two restaurants only and a large number of customers (agents) who come to these restaurants. Each day the same number of agents sequentially arrives and decides which restaurant to enter. If all the agents literally follow the crowd then there is no difference between this model and the famous `P\'olya's Urn' model. But as agents alter their strategies different kind of dynamics of the model is seen. It is seen from numerical results that the existence of a distribution of the fixed points is quite robust and it is also seen that in some cases the variations in the ratio of the queue-lengths follow a power-law.