Abstract:
This is a paper about private data analysis, in which a trusted curator holding a confidential database responds to real vector-valued queries. A common approach to ensuring privacy for the database elements is to add appropriately generated random noise to the answers, releasing only these {\em noisy} responses. In this paper, we investigate various lower bounds on the noise required to maintain different kind of privacy guarantees.

Abstract:
We show that Trevisan's extractor and its variants \cite{T99,RRV99} are secure against bounded quantum storage adversaries. One instantiation gives the first such extractor to achieve an output length $\Theta(K-b)$, where $K$ is the source's entropy and $b$ the adversary's storage, together with a poly-logarithmic seed length. Another instantiation achieves a logarithmic key length, with a slightly smaller output length $\Theta((K-b)/K^\gamma)$ for any $\gamma>0$. In contrast, the previous best construction \cite{TS09} could only extract $(K/b)^{1/15}$ bits. Some of our constructions have the additional advantage that every bit of the output is a function of only a polylogarithmic number of bits from the source, which is crucial for some cryptographic applications. Our argument is based on bounds for a generalization of quantum random access codes, which we call \emph{quantum functional access codes}. This is crucial as it lets us avoid the local list-decoding algorithm central to the approach in \cite{TS09}, which was the source of the multiplicative overhead.

Abstract:
The results of Raghavendra (2008) show that assuming Khot's Unique Games Conjecture (2002), for every constraint satisfaction problem there exists a generic semi-definite program that achieves the optimal approximation factor. This result is existential as it does not provide an explicit optimal rounding procedure nor does it allow to calculate exactly the Unique Games hardness of the problem. Obtaining an explicit optimal approximation scheme and the corresponding approximation factor is a difficult challenge for each specific approximation problem. An approach for determining the exact approximation factor and the corresponding optimal rounding was established in the analysis of MAX-CUT (KKMO 2004) and the use of the Invariance Principle (MOO 2005). However, this approach crucially relies on results explicitly proving optimal partitions in Gaussian space. Until recently, Borell's result (Borell 1985) was the only non-trivial Gaussian partition result known. In this paper we derive the first explicit optimal approximation algorithm and the corresponding approximation factor using a new result on Gaussian partitions due to Isaksson and Mossel (2012). This Gaussian result allows us to determine exactly the Unique Games Hardness of MAX-3-EQUAL. In particular, our results show that Zwick algorithm for this problem achieves the optimal approximation factor and prove that the approximation achieved by the algorithm is $\approx 0.796$ as conjectured by Zwick. We further use the previously known optimal Gaussian partitions results to obtain a new Unique Games Hardness factor for MAX-k-CSP : Using the well known fact that jointly normal pairwise independent random variables are fully independent, we show that the the UGC hardness of Max-k-CSP is $\frac{\lceil (k+1)/2 \rceil}{2^{k-1}}$, improving on results of Austrin and Mossel (2009).

Abstract:
We give a deterministic algorithm for approximately counting satisfying assignments of a degree-$d$ polynomial threshold function (PTF). Given a degree-$d$ input polynomial $p(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ over $R^n$ and a parameter $\epsilon> 0$, our algorithm approximates $\Pr_{x \sim \{-1,1\}^n}[p(x) \geq 0]$ to within an additive $\pm \epsilon$ in time $O_{d,\epsilon}(1)\cdot \mathop{poly}(n^d)$. (Any sort of efficient multiplicative approximation is impossible even for randomized algorithms assuming $NP\not=RP$.) Note that the running time of our algorithm (as a function of $n^d$, the number of coefficients of a degree-$d$ PTF) is a \emph{fixed} polynomial. The fastest previous algorithm for this problem (due to Kane), based on constructions of unconditional pseudorandom generators for degree-$d$ PTFs, runs in time $n^{O_{d,c}(1) \cdot \epsilon^{-c}}$ for all $c > 0$. The key novel contributions of this work are: A new multivariate central limit theorem, proved using tools from Malliavin calculus and Stein's Method. This new CLT shows that any collection of Gaussian polynomials with small eigenvalues must have a joint distribution which is very close to a multidimensional Gaussian distribution. A new decomposition of low-degree multilinear polynomials over Gaussian inputs. Roughly speaking we show that (up to some small error) any such polynomial can be decomposed into a bounded number of multilinear polynomials all of which have extremely small eigenvalues. We use these new ingredients to give a deterministic algorithm for a Gaussian-space version of the approximate counting problem, and then employ standard techniques for working with low-degree PTFs (invariance principles and regularity lemmas) to reduce the original approximate counting problem over the Boolean hypercube to the Gaussian version.

Abstract:
Fidelity plays an important role in measuring distances between pairs of quantum states, of single as well as multiparty systems. Based on the concept of fidelity, we introduce a physical quantity, shared purity, for arbitrary pure or mixed quantum states of shared systems of an arbitrary number of parties in arbitrary dimensions. We find that it is different from quantum correlations. However, we prove that a maximal shared purity between two parties excludes any shared purity of these parties with a third party, thus ensuring its quantum nature. Moreover, we show that all generalized GHZ states are monogamous, while all generalized W states are non-monogamous with respect to this measure. We apply the quantity to investigate the quantum XY spin models, and observe that it can faithfully detect the quantum phase transition present in these models. We perform a finite-size scaling analysis and find the scaling exponent for this quantity.

Abstract:
For $f$ a weighted voting scheme used by $n$ voters to choose between two candidates, the $n$ \emph{Shapley-Shubik Indices} (or {\em Shapley values}) of $f$ provide a measure of how much control each voter can exert over the overall outcome of the vote. Shapley-Shubik indices were introduced by Lloyd Shapley and Martin Shubik in 1954 \cite{SS54} and are widely studied in social choice theory as a measure of the "influence" of voters. The \emph{Inverse Shapley Value Problem} is the problem of designing a weighted voting scheme which (approximately) achieves a desired input vector of values for the Shapley-Shubik indices. Despite much interest in this problem no provably correct and efficient algorithm was known prior to our work. We give the first efficient algorithm with provable performance guarantees for the Inverse Shapley Value Problem. For any constant $\eps > 0$ our algorithm runs in fixed poly$(n)$ time (the degree of the polynomial is independent of $\eps$) and has the following performance guarantee: given as input a vector of desired Shapley values, if any "reasonable" weighted voting scheme (roughly, one in which the threshold is not too skewed) approximately matches the desired vector of values to within some small error, then our algorithm explicitly outputs a weighted voting scheme that achieves this vector of Shapley values to within error $\eps.$ If there is a "reasonable" voting scheme in which all voting weights are integers at most $\poly(n)$ that approximately achieves the desired Shapley values, then our algorithm runs in time $\poly(n)$ and outputs a weighted voting scheme that achieves the target vector of Shapley values to within error $\eps=n^{-1/8}.$

Abstract:
Let $g: \{-1,1\}^k \to \{-1,1\}$ be any Boolean function and $q_1,\dots,q_k$ be any degree-2 polynomials over $\{-1,1\}^n.$ We give a \emph{deterministic} algorithm which, given as input explicit descriptions of $g,q_1,\dots,q_k$ and an accuracy parameter $\eps>0$, approximates \[\Pr_{x \sim \{-1,1\}^n}[g(\sign(q_1(x)),\dots,\sign(q_k(x)))=1]\] to within an additive $\pm \eps$. For any constant $\eps > 0$ and $k \geq 1$ the running time of our algorithm is a fixed polynomial in $n$. This is the first fixed polynomial-time algorithm that can deterministically approximately count satisfying assignments of a natural class of depth-3 Boolean circuits. Our algorithm extends a recent result \cite{DDS13:deg2count} which gave a deterministic approximate counting algorithm for a single degree-2 polynomial threshold function $\sign(q(x)),$ corresponding to the $k=1$ case of our result. Our algorithm and analysis requires several novel technical ingredients that go significantly beyond the tools required to handle the $k=1$ case in \cite{DDS13:deg2count}. One of these is a new multidimensional central limit theorem for degree-2 polynomials in Gaussian random variables which builds on recent Malliavin-calculus-based results from probability theory. We use this CLT as the basis of a new decomposition technique for $k$-tuples of degree-2 Gaussian polynomials and thus obtain an efficient deterministic approximate counting algorithm for the Gaussian distribution. Finally, a third new ingredient is a "regularity lemma" for \emph{$k$-tuples} of degree-$d$ polynomial threshold functions. This generalizes both the regularity lemmas of \cite{DSTW:10,HKM:09} and the regularity lemma of Gopalan et al \cite{GOWZ10}. Our new regularity lemma lets us extend our deterministic approximate counting results from the Gaussian to the Boolean domain.

Abstract:
We give a {\em deterministic} algorithm for approximately computing the fraction of Boolean assignments that satisfy a degree-$2$ polynomial threshold function. Given a degree-2 input polynomial $p(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ and a parameter $\eps > 0$, the algorithm approximates \[ \Pr_{x \sim \{-1,1\}^n}[p(x) \geq 0] \] to within an additive $\pm \eps$ in time $\poly(n,2^{\poly(1/\eps)})$. Note that it is NP-hard to determine whether the above probability is nonzero, so any sort of multiplicative approximation is almost certainly impossible even for efficient randomized algorithms. This is the first deterministic algorithm for this counting problem in which the running time is polynomial in $n$ for $\eps= o(1)$. For "regular" polynomials $p$ (those in which no individual variable's influence is large compared to the sum of all $n$ variable influences) our algorithm runs in $\poly(n,1/\eps)$ time. The algorithm also runs in $\poly(n,1/\eps)$ time to approximate $\Pr_{x \sim N(0,1)^n}[p(x) \geq 0]$ to within an additive $\pm \eps$, for any degree-2 polynomial $p$. As an application of our counting result, we give a deterministic FPT multiplicative $(1 \pm \eps)$-approximation algorithm to approximate the $k$-th absolute moment $\E_{x \sim \{-1,1\}^n}[|p(x)^k|]$ of a degree-2 polynomial. The algorithm's running time is of the form $\poly(n) \cdot f(k,1/\eps)$.

Abstract:
This paper makes two contributions towards determining some well-studied optimal constants in Fourier analysis \newa{of Boolean functions} and high-dimensional geometry. \begin{enumerate} \item It has been known since 1994 \cite{GL:94} that every linear threshold function has squared Fourier mass at least 1/2 on its degree-0 and degree-1 coefficients. Denote the minimum such Fourier mass by $\w^{\leq 1}[\ltf]$, where the minimum is taken over all $n$-variable linear threshold functions and all $n \ge 0$. Benjamini, Kalai and Schramm \cite{BKS:99} have conjectured that the true value of $\w^{\leq 1}[\ltf]$ is $2/\pi$. We make progress on this conjecture by proving that $\w^{\leq 1}[\ltf] \geq 1/2 + c$ for some absolute constant $c>0$. The key ingredient in our proof is a "robust" version of the well-known Khintchine inequality in functional analysis, which we believe may be of independent interest. \item We give an algorithm with the following property: given any $\eta > 0$, the algorithm runs in time $2^{\poly(1/\eta)}$ and determines the value of $\w^{\leq 1}[\ltf]$ up to an additive error of $\pm\eta$. We give a similar $2^{{\poly(1/\eta)}}$-time algorithm to determine \emph{Tomaszewski's constant} to within an additive error of $\pm \eta$; this is the minimum (over all origin-centered hyperplanes $H$) fraction of points in $\{-1,1\}^n$ that lie within Euclidean distance 1 of $H$. Tomaszewski's constant is conjectured to be 1/2; lower bounds on it have been given by Holzman and Kleitman \cite{HK92} and independently by Ben-Tal, Nemirovski and Roos \cite{BNR02}. Our algorithms combine tools from anti-concentration of sums of independent random variables, Fourier analysis, and Hermite analysis of linear threshold functions. \end{enumerate}

Abstract:
We initiate the study of \emph{inverse} problems in approximate uniform generation, focusing on uniform generation of satisfying assignments of various types of Boolean functions. In such an inverse problem, the algorithm is given uniform random satisfying assignments of an unknown function $f$ belonging to a class $\C$ of Boolean functions, and the goal is to output a probability distribution $D$ which is $\epsilon$-close, in total variation distance, to the uniform distribution over $f^{-1}(1)$. Positive results: We prove a general positive result establishing sufficient conditions for efficient inverse approximate uniform generation for a class $\C$. We define a new type of algorithm called a \emph{densifier} for $\C$, and show (roughly speaking) how to combine (i) a densifier, (ii) an approximate counting / uniform generation algorithm, and (iii) a Statistical Query learning algorithm, to obtain an inverse approximate uniform generation algorithm. We apply this general result to obtain a poly$(n,1/\eps)$-time algorithm for the class of halfspaces; and a quasipoly$(n,1/\eps)$-time algorithm for the class of $\poly(n)$-size DNF formulas. Negative results: We prove a general negative result establishing that the existence of certain types of signature schemes in cryptography implies the hardness of certain inverse approximate uniform generation problems. This implies that there are no {subexponential}-time inverse approximate uniform generation algorithms for 3-CNF formulas; for intersections of two halfspaces; for degree-2 polynomial threshold functions; and for monotone 2-CNF formulas. Finally, we show that there is no general relationship between the complexity of the "forward" approximate uniform generation problem and the complexity of the inverse problem for a class $\C$ -- it is possible for either one to be easy while the other is hard.