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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 203 matches for " Anindita Bhadra "
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Preference for meat is not innate in dogs
Anandarup Bhadra,Anindita Bhadra
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10164-013-0388-7
Abstract: Indian free ranging dogs live in a carbohydrate rich environment as scavengers in and around human settlements. They rarely hunt and consequently do not encounter rich sources of protein. Instead they have adapted to a diet of primarily carbohydrates. As descendants of the exclusively carnivorous wolves, they are subjected to the evolutionary load of a physiological demand for proteins. To meet their protein needs they resort to a thumb rule, if it smells like meat, eat it. Pups face high competition from group and non group members and are in a phase of rapid growth with high protein demands. Following the thumb rule, then they can acquire more protein at the cost of increased competition and reduced supplementary non protein nutrition. However, if the mother supplements their diet with protein rich regurgitates and milk, then the pups can benefit by being generalists. Using a choice test in the field we show that while adults have a clear preference for meat, pups have no such preference, and they even eat degraded protein eagerly. Thus the thumb rule used by adult dogs for efficient scavenging is not innate, and needs to be learned. The thumb rule might be acquired by cultural transmission, through exposure to meat in the regurgitate of the mother, or while accompanying her on foraging trips.
Cryptic successors unrevealed even by network analysis: A comparative study of two paper wasp species
Anindita Bhadra,Ferenc Jordan
Network Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Understanding queen succession could be a key contribution to the better understanding of the origins and evolution of eusociality. In order to investigate the nature of organizational changes during queen succession, we analyzed two closely related paper wasp species (Ropalidia cyathiformis and Ropalidia marginata). We compared the effects of in vivo and in silico queen removal on the structure of their interaction networks (the former resulting in queenless colonies with potential queens). We studied several structural measures. There is no major structural difference between full (queenright) and in silico queen-removed colonies but there are major differences between queenless and in silico queen-removed ones. This suggests that queen succession is accompanied by a major reorganization of the society, in Rm but not so much in Rc. We also analysed the centrality ranks of potential queens and found that their positional importance changes a lot during queen succession in R. marginata, as they are processed in the colony. In the queenright colonies of R. marginata, the direction of links is a better predictor of the identity of the potential queen than the strength of links.
Parent-offspring Conflict in feral dogs: A Bioassay
Sreejani Sen Majumder,Manabi Paul,Anindita Bhadra
Quantitative Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2013.10.006
Abstract: The parent-offspring conflict theory is an interesting premise for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used the Indian feral dog as a model system to test the POC theory in their natural habitat in the context of the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stage. Our behavioural bioassay convincingly demonstrates an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the conflict is intentional, and is not influenced by the hunger levels of the pups or the litter size.
The Meat of the Matter: A thumb rule for scavenging dogs?
Anandarup Bhadra,Debottam Bhattacharjee,Manabi Paul,Anindita Bhadra
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Animals that scavenge in and around human localities need to utilize a broad range of resources. Preference for any one kind of food, under such circumstances, might be inefficient. Indian free-ranging dogs, Canis lupus familiaris are scavengers that are heavily dependent on humans for sustaining their omnivorous diet. The current study suggests that because of evolutionary load, these dogs, which are descendants of the decidedly carnivorous gray wolf, still retain a preference for meat though they live on carbohydrate-rich resources. The plasticity in their diet probably fosters efficient scavenging in a competitive environment, while a thumb rule for preferentially acquiring specific nutrients enables them to sequester proteins from the carbohydrate-rich environment.
To be or not to be social: Foraging associations of free-ranging dogs in an urban ecosystem
Sreejani Sen Majumder,Anandarup Bhadra,Arjun Ghosh,Soumitra Mitra,Debottam Bhattacharjee,Jit Chatterjee,Anjan K. Nandi,Anindita Bhadra
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10211-013-0158-0
Abstract: Canids display a wide diversity of social systems, from solitary to pairs to packs, and hence they have been extensively used as model systems to understand social dynamics in natural systems. Among canids, the dog can show various levels of social organization due to the influence of humans on their lives. Though the dog is known as man's best friend and has been studied extensively as a pet, studies on the natural history, ecology and behaviour of dogs in a natural habitat are rare. Here we report results of an extensive population-level study conducted through one-time censuses in urban India to understand the ecoethology of free-ranging dogs. We built a model to test if the observed groups could have been formed through random associations while foraging. Our modeling results suggest that the dogs, like all efficient scavengers, tend to forage singly but also form random uncorrelated groups. A closer inspection of the group compositions however reveals that the foraging associations are non-random events. The tendency of adults to associate with the opposite sex in the mating season and of juveniles to stay close to adults in the non-mating season drives the population towards aggregation, in spite of the apparently random nature of the group size distribution. Hence we conclude that to be or not to be social is a matter of choice for the free-ranging dogs, and not a matter of chance.
The Evolution of Complexity in Social Organization - A Model Using Dominance-Subordinate Behaviour in Two Social Wasp Species
Anjan K. Nandi,Anindita Bhadra,Annagiri Sumana,Sujata A. Deshpande,Raghavendra Gadagkar
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.01.010
Abstract: Dominance and subordinate behaviours are important ingredients in the social organizations of group living animals. Behavioural observations on the two eusocial species \textit{Ropalidia marginata} and \textit{Ropalidia cyathiformis} suggest varying complexities in their social systems. The queen of R. cyathiformis is an aggressive individual who usually holds the top position in the dominance hierarchy although she does not necessarily show the maximum number of acts of dominance, while the R. marginata queen rarely shows aggression and usually does not hold the top position in the dominance hierarchy of her colony. These differences are reflected in the distribution of dominance-subordinate interactions among the hierarchically ranked individuals in both the species. The percentage of dominance interactions decrease gradually with hierarchical ranks in R. marginata while in R. cyathiformis it first increases and then decreases. We use an agent-based model to investigate the underlying mechanism that could give rise to the observed patterns for both the species. The model assumes, besides some non-interacting individuals, that the interaction probabilities of the agents depend on their pre-differentiated winning abilities. Our simulations show that if the queen takes up a strategy of being involved in a moderate number of dominance interactions, one could get the pattern similar to R. cyathiformis, while taking up the strategy of very low interactions by the queen could lead to the pattern of R. marginata. We infer that both the species follow a common interaction pattern, while the differences in their social organization are due to the slight changes in queen as well as worker strategies. These changes in strategies are expected to accompany the evolution of more complex societies from simpler ones.
Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Dwarakeswar Watershed Area, India  [PDF]
Sisir Kanti Nag, Anindita Lahiri
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14019
Abstract:

The Hydrochemical study was carried out in Dwarakeswar watershed area, Bankura and Purulia districts, West Bengal, India, with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. Groundwater samples have been collected from different villages within Dwarakeswar watershed area. The samples have been analysed to determine physical parameters like pH, EC, TDS and Hardness, the chemical parameters like Na, K, Ca, Fe, HCO3, SO4 and Cl. From the analysed data, some parameters like Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Total Hardness (TH), Magnesium Absorption Ration (MAR) and Kelly’s Ratio (KR) have also been determined. The distribution pattern of TDS and chlorides, which are the general indicators of groundwater quality reveals that on an average the ground water is fresh and potable except the ground water in and around Teghari, Gara and Satyatan Primary school where the groundwater is not potable and may affect the health of local population because concentration of TDS exceeds the desirable limits of 500 mg/L. The aerial distribution of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) reveals that highest concentration is recorded at Gara and Teghri and the lowest concentrations is noted in Suburdih and Kalabani. SAR values were ranged between 0.09 - 0.54 meq/L in pre monsoon and 0.01 - 0.24 meq/L in post-monsoon. It is evident from the whole sample set that the SAR value is excellent in all the samples. Hence, our findings strongly suggest that all the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation. Results of analyses for physical and chemical parameters of groundwater in this area was found to be within the desirable Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organisation limits for drinking water.

Mental Health & Mental Illness: Our Responsibility
M Bhadra
Health Renaissance , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/hren.v10i1.6014
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hren.v10i1.6014 HREN 2012; 10(1): 72
Electromagnetic Mass Models in General Theory of Relativity
Sumana Bhadra
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: "Electromagnetic mass" where gravitational mass and other physical quantities originate from the electromagnetic field alone has a century long distinguished history. In the introductory chapter we have divided this history into three broad categories -- classical, quantum mechanical and general relativistic. Each of the categories has been described at a length to get the detailed picture of the physical background. Recent developments on Repulsive Electromagnetic Mass Models are of special interest in this introductory part of the thesis. In this context we have also stated motivation of our work. In the subsequent chapters we have presented our results and their physical significances. It is concluded that the electromagnetic mass models which are the sources of purely electromagnetic origin ``have not only heuristic flavor associated with the conjecture of Lorentz but even a physics having unconventional yet novel features characterizing their own contributions independent of the rest of the physics".
Compatibility of Einstein minimally coupled self interacting scalar field theory with the solar system tests of gravity
A. Bhadra
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/25/20/205001
Abstract: We examine the compatibility of the Einstein minimally coupled self-interacting scalar field theory with the local tests of gravity. We find that apart from the trivial case of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution with constant scalar field the theory does not admit any other static solution, which is consistent with the solar system tests of gravity.
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