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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2347 matches for " Anil Malhotra "
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Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Abuse in Adolecents
Anil Malhotra,Debasish Basu,Nitin Gupta
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health , 2005,
Abstract: Psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders is a broad "umbrella" term that brings under its folds a diverse array of non-pharmacological interventions for effective and global management of drug abuse. The common thread underlying these interventions is that they do not involve prescribing medicines in any form. This does not mean, however, that psychosocial treatment has any conflict with pharmacological treatment. Quite on the contrary, it has been documented that each modality of treatment helps the other. Specifically, psychosocial interventions can enhance pharmacological treatment efficacy by increasing medication compliance, retention in treatment, and acquisition of skills that reinforce the effects of medications.
The "Statinth" wonder of the world: a panacea for all illnesses or a bubble about to burst
Nusrat Shafiq, Samir Malhotra, Promila Pandhi, Anil Grover
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-4-3
Abstract: Recently while browsing through the internet, we came across a webpage [1] that reads as follows: "Statin drugs should probably be in the water, like fluoride. These cholesterol fighting wonders have been proven to prevent heart attacks..... with only rare side effects............... The hitch is that statins cost more than fluoride. A lot more. The drug industry's statin sales surpassed US $15 billion last year. The cholesterol fighting power of products like Pfizer's Lipitor and Merck's Zocor have won them the title 'Superstatins' and made them supersellers. Lipitor brought in US $9.2 billion in 2003 sales for Pfizer, making it the biggest prescription drug in the world."In 2001, we reviewed the statin literature for Medscape and were able to enlist about seven indications[2], the major one being dyslipidemia with associated coronary disease (CAD). The 1993 National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines [3] were cautiously optimistic about the future of statins but subsequent publication of 3 landmark trials [4-6], greatly tilted the balance in their favour and since then they haven't looked back: a large number of trials and guidelines added new intensity to cholesterol lowering with the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets going for a free fall (<70 mg/dl in some situations) [7-12]. Although this approach of more intense lipid lowering has met with considerable criticism, this is not the topic of this review. We intend to discuss the other novel, upcoming uses of statins.In contrast to the post-hoc analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) [4] in which the benefit provided was related to the magnitude of change in the LDL-C levels, some other studies have shown benefits that could not be accounted for by reduction in LDL-C alone [13-16]. A large number of studies showing pleiotropism of statins followed and diverse mechanisms were then proposed to explain this pleiotropism including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatin
Transcriptional analysis of an immune-responsive serine protease from Indian malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies
Janneth Rodrigues, Neema Agrawal, Anil Sharma, Pawan Malhotra, Tridibes Adak, Virander S Chauhan, Raj K Bhatnagar
BMC Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-8-33
Abstract: Here, we report the molecular characterization of a serine protease (acsp30)-encoding gene from A. culicifacies, which was expressed in high abundance in the refractory strain compared to the susceptible (S) strain. The transcriptional upregulation of acsp30 upon Plasmodium challenge in the refractory strain coincided with ookinete invasion of mosquito midgut. Gene organization and primary sequence of acsp30 were identical in the R and S strains suggesting a divergent regulatory status of acsp30 in these strains. To examine this further, the upstream regulatory sequences of acsp30 were isolated, cloned and evaluated for the presence of promoter activity. The 702 bp upstream region of acsp30 from the two strains revealed sequence divergence. The promoter activity measured by luciferase-based reporter assay was shown to be 1.5-fold higher in the R strain than in the S. Gel shift experiments demonstrated a differential recruitment of nuclear proteins to upstream sequences of acsp30 as well as a difference in the composition of nuclear proteins in the two strains, both of which might contribute to the relative abundance of acsp30 in the R strain;The specific upregulation of acsp30 in the R strain only in response to Plasmodium infection is suggestive of its role in contributing the refractory phenotype to the A. culicifacies mosquito population.The Anopheles culicifacies mosquito is the main vector of the human malaria parasite, P. vivax, in the Indian sub-continent and is responsible for approximately 65% of new malaria cases annually [1]. The natural transmission cycle of Plasmodium parasite requires successful completion of a complex sporogonic cycle in the midgut and the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito, a process that takes place over a period of two weeks. This developmental cycle can be blocked by the innate immune responses of the mosquito thereby resulting in the elimination of pathogen in the vector itself [2].Mosquito vectors differ in their efficien
Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes
Monika Sharma,Rakesh Sehgal,Bashir Ahmad Fomda,Anil Malhotra,Nancy Malla
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002262
Abstract: Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32) were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1%) or G1 (40.62%) genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain) and G6 (camel strain) genotype. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain) and G3 (buffalo strain) genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain) in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain) in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis.
Empirical Support for DSM-IV Schizoaffective Disorder: Clinical and Cognitive Validators from a Large Patient Sample
Pamela DeRosse, Katherine E. Burdick, Todd Lencz, Samuel G. Siris, Anil K. Malhotra
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063734
Abstract: Objective The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has long maintained an uncertain status in psychiatric nosology. Studies comparing clinical and biological features of patients with schizoaffective disorder to patients with related disorders [e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder] can provide an evidence base for judging the validity of the diagnostic category. However, because most prior studies of schizoaffective disorder have only evaluated differences between groups at a static timepoint, it is unclear how these disorders may be related when the entire illness course is taken into consideration. Methods We ascertained a large cohort [N = 993] of psychiatric patients with a range of psychotic diagnoses including schizophrenia with no history of major affective episodes [SZ?; N = 371], schizophrenia with a superimposed mood syndrome [SZ+; N = 224], schizoaffective disorder [SAD; N = 129] and bipolar I disorder with psychotic features [BPD+; N = 269]. Using cross-sectional data we designed key clinical and neurocognitive dependent measures that allowed us to test longitudinal hypotheses about the differences between these diagnostic entities. Results Large differences between diagnostic groups on several demographic and clinical variables were observed. Most notably, groups differed on a putative measure of cognitive decline. Specifically, the SAD group demonstrated significantly greater post-onset cognitive decline compared to the BP+ group, with the SZ? and SZ+ group both exhibiting levels of decline intermediate to BPD+ and SAD. Conclusions These results suggest that schizoaffective disorder may possess distinct features. Contrary to earlier formulations, schizoaffective disorder may be a more severe form of illness.
Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation
Sardul Singh Sandhu,Anil K. Sharma,Vikas Beniwal,Gunjan Goel,Priya Batra,Anil Kumar,Sundeep Jaglan,A. K. Sharma,Sonal Malhotra
Journal of Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/126819
Abstract: The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. 1. Introduction Myco-biocontrol is an environmentally sound and effective means of reducing or mitigating insect-pests and its effects through the use of natural enemies. Pest-related damages result in a heavy loss, approximately estimated to be US $10,000 millions annually in agricultural production in the field and storage in India. Myco-biocontrol is the use of fungi in biological processes to lower the insect density with the aim of reducing disease-producing activity and consequently crop damage [1, 2]. All groups of insects may be affected and over 700 species of fungi have been recorded as pathogens. Some of these fungi have restricted host ranges, for example, Aschersonia aleyrodes infects only scale insects and whiteflies, while other fungal species have a wide host range, with individual isolates being more specific to target pests. Some species are facultative generalist pathogens, such as Aspergillus and Fusarium. However, most species are obligate pathogens, often quite specific and rarely found, for example, many species of Cordyceps. Entomopathogens such as M. anisopliae and B. bassiana are well characterized in respect to pathogenicity to several insects and have been used as myco-biocontrol agents for biological control of agriculture pests worldwide. About 11 companies offer at least 16 products based on the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana at Columbia. These products are not only used in coffee crop but also in other crops such as bean, cabbage, corn, potato, and tomato. They are used to treat haematophagous insect pests and vectors of diseases like mosquitoes and flies. Under natural conditions, fungi are the frequent and often important natural mortality factor in insect populations. Unlike other potential
Disaster Recovery of Data by Using Data Guard
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Oracle Data Guard is the management, monitoring, and automation software infrastructure that creates, maintains, and monitors one or more standby databases to protect enterprise data from failures, disasters, errors, and data corruptions. Data Guard maintains standby databases as consistent copies of the production database as far as transactions are concerned. These standby databases can be located at remote disaster recovery sites thousands of miles away from the production data center, or they may be located in the same city, same campus, or even in the same building. If the production database becomes unavailable because of a planned or an unplanned outage, Data Guard can switch any standby database to the production role, thus minimizing the downtime associated with the outage, andpreventing any data loss. The document explains the structure of a physical standby database with Oracle Data Guard in an SAP environment. It indicates all the steps needed to successfully install and configure an Oracle Data Guard system with a physical standby database and the logical order in which they must be carried out. To enable you to operate the standby database (Oracle DataGuard), a description of how to configure the Data Guard Brokeris also provided. In just a few steps this service allows you toswap the database roles. This means that in the event of a disaster,what is known as a switchover or failover is undertaken almostautomatically. The database administrator can initiate the processwith just one command.
Energy Efficient Path Determination in Wireless Sensor Network Using BFS Approach  [PDF]
Shilpa Mahajan, Jyoteesh Malhotra
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.311040
Abstract: The wireless sensor networks (WSN) are formed by a large number of sensor nodes working together to provide a specific duty. However, the low energy capacity assigned to each node prompts users to look at an important design challenge such as lifetime maximization. Therefore, designing effective routing techniques that conserve scarce energy resources is a critical issue in WSN. Though, the chain-based routing is one of significant routing mechanisms but several common flaws, such as data propagation delay and redundant transmission, are associated with it. In this paper, we will be proposing an energy efficient technique based on graph theory that can be used to find out minimum path based on some defined conditions from a source node to the destination node. Initially, a sensor area is divided into number of levels by a base station based on signal strength. It is important to note that this technique will always found out minimum path and even alternate path are also saved in case of node failure.
A Retrospective Study of Impact of PPTCT on HIV Trends, Maternal and Perinatal Outcome  [PDF]
Anjali Malhotra, Sumitra Yadav
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64020
Abstract: Background: Women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS may transmit the infection to their child during pregnancy. The infection may spread during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. However, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV may be reduced by the use of HIV medications known as antiretroviral therapy (ART). Infection with HIV/AIDS is not a contraindication to pregnancy. Some women are unaware they have the disease until they become pregnant. In this case, they should begin antiretroviral therapy as soon as possible [1]. With the appropriate treatment, the risk of mother-to-child infection can be reduced to below 1% [2]. Without treatment, the risk of transmission is 15% - 45% [3]. Objective: The main aim of the study is to appreciate the declining trend of HIV in babies with HIV positive mother by implementation of PPTCT services. Methods: A retrospective study of detection of HIV positive mothers among all the antenatal patients attending OPD and including the patients coming in Emergency services and delivered in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at MGMMC & M. Y. Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India) from Jan 2006 to Dec 2015 was included in the study. They were screened for HIV status and further management of all HIV positive patients.
Effect of Economic Growth on the Logistics Sector in India  [PDF]
Gunjan Malhotra, Sita Mishra
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.91016

Purpose: The aim is to attempt to explore the effect of selected economic growth indicators on the net profits in the logistics sector in India. Methodology: The research type used is causal research. The data are collected for the period of 1991-92 to 2016-17 from CMIE, RBI and government websites. The paper tries to establish the relationship among the independent variables such as the change in taxes, change in inflation rate and the change in GDP of Indian services sector on the dependent variable as profits of the Indian logistics industry. Findings: Results indicate that the tax expenses and inflation rate have a negative impact on the profit of logistics sector whereas the change in GDP service sector has a positive impact on the profit of the logistics sector. However, GDP service sector affects the profit of transportation industry less than the impact in comparison to the tax rate and inflation. Originality: This study provides the foundation for future research in the logistics sector. In today’s globalization and digitalization and with the advent of tax reforms like GST, this research is relevant with regard to determining the effect of taxation, inflation, and GDP on the logistics sector in India.

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