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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22874 matches for " Anil Kumar Tripathi "
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Testability Models for Object-Oriented Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36061
Abstract: Frameworks are time-tested highly reusable architectural skeleton structures. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘inco- mplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one- time use application. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing a few metric models for testability analysis of object-oriented frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down.
Variability-Based Models for Testability Analysis of Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35051
Abstract: Frameworks are developed to capture the recurring design practices in terms of skeletons of software subsystems/ systems. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘incomplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one-time use application. It would be advisable to guaranty the production of high quality frameworks without incurring heavy costs for their rigorous testing. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing various metric models for testability analysis of frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down. The models considered herein particularly consider that frameworks are inherently abstract and variable in nature.
Treating NFR as First Grade for Its Testability  [PDF]
Pratima Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.512114
Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers in the field of software engineering have realized that Non Functional requirement have not received due attention and second grade (or no) treatment has been meted out to Non Functional Requirements. Many software products/systems are finally not acceptable because of such an approach. This casual approach of treating NFR has moved on to Testing also. Testing of NFR has never been taken seriously. Here in this work, we attempt to under- stand what needs to be done for proper consideration of NFR, so that they are treated as seriously as the Functional Requirements. In an attempt to treat NFR as seriously as FR we work on the testability of NFR by refining an abstract quality concern into concrete NFR statements. We show that quality concerns needs to be analyzed, for identifying and finally converting them into appropriate and unambiguous NFR. Once a high quality of NFR is ensured then the consequent testing of these NFRs will become as effective as that of Functional Requirement. We finally propose a revised model of Problem Analysis and Requirement Specification. A step wise refinement model for quality concern into test- able Non Functional Requirement is also proposed.

Software Reliability Early Prediction in Architectural Design Phase: Overview and Limitations  [PDF]
Lalit Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Gopika Vinod
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.43020
Abstract: In recent times, computer based systems are frequently used for protection and control in the various industries viz Nuclear, Electrical, Mechanical, Civil, Electronics, Medical, etc. From the operating experience of those computer based systems, it has been found that the failure of which can lead to the severe damage to equipments or environmental harm. The culprit of this accident is nobody other than our software, whose reliability has not been ensured in those conditions. Also for real time system, throughput of the system and average response time are very important constructs/ metrics of reliability. Moreover neither of the software reliability model is available which can be fitted generically for all kinds of software. So, we can ensure reliability at the early stage i.e. during design phase by architecturing the software in a better way. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art research in the area of architecture-based software reliability analysis. We then describe the shortcomings and the limiting assumptions underlying the prevalent research. We also propose various approaches which have the potential to address the existing limitations
Energy Efficient Task Scheduling of Send-Receive Task Graphs on Distributed Multi-Core Processors with Software Controlled Dynamic Voltage Scaling
Abhishek Mishra,Anil Kumar Tripathi
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a model of distributed multi-core processors with software controlled dynamicvoltage scaling. We consider the problem of energy efficient task scheduling with a given deadline on thismodel. We consider send-receive task graphs in which the initial task sends data to multiple intermediatetasks, and the final task collects the data from these intermediate tasks with the restriction that the initialand final tasks should be assigned on the same core.
Exploring Problems and Solutions in estimating Testing Effort for Non Functional Requirement
Pratima Singh,Anil Kumar Tripathi
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Importance of testing has been realized in literature now, although late, but has been realized. Testing of Non Functional Requirement still remains unattended by the Software engineering Community. It is still being given second hand treatment from its specification, design to Testing. We try to analyze the contributory factors of testability of NFR, so that some metrification for the purpose of Effort Estimation due to NFR can be estimated. For the purpose of same we have tried to identify certain, difficulty related to NFR and indicators of its testability.
Issues in Testing of Software with NFR
Pratima Singh,Anil Kumar Tripathi
International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Software Development has started experiencing the need of consideration of NFR (Non FunctionalRequirements) for producing high quality acceptable software. Mostly software engineering literature hasconsidered only for testing Functional Requirements. In context of such a need this work attempts toconsider NFR, resulting from quality concerns of stakeholder, along with their impact and effect on testing.We identify and bring out issues, in testing of NFR that warrant, purposeful and meaningfulconsiderations.
Effect of soil moisture on growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of crops and tree seedlings in alfisol
ASHOK SHUKLA*, ANIL KUMAR, ANURADHA JHA and V. D. TRIPATHI
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil moisture levels (field capacity [FC], half field capacity [HFC] and double field capacity [DFC]) on growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of two crops (Phaseolus mungo Roxb. var. PU-35 and Triticum aestivum L. var. WH-147) and seedlings of two multi purpose tree species (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. [Clone C-7, ITC, Bhadrachalam] and Albizia procera Benth.). Significant increase in plant growth parameters and phosphorus (P) uptake was recorded after inoculations with AM fungi (Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Glomus cerebriforme McGee and G. intraradix Schenck & Smith). Different AM fungi were effective in terms of plant growth and P uptake at different soil moisture levels with most of them having maximum efficacy at FC. Maximum AM activity in terms of arbuscules, vesicles, sporocarp formation, colonization index and spore count per 100 g soil was also recorded at FC in studied plants. While ranking the importance of two factors studied viz., soil moisture levels and inoculation with AM fungi for their effect on the growth of crop/ trees, inoculations with AM fungi ranked first (explaining 33 to 86% variation in plant growth) for P. mungo, T. aestivum and A. procera (forward selection method), whereas soil moisture levels dominantly explained the growth variation in E. tereticornis, except few cases. The results obtained in present study suggest that inoculation of plants with a suitable AM consortium could be more beneficial as compared to individual AM fungi, depending upon the soil moisture content of the fields and plant species.
A Novel Dimer-Tetramer Transition Captured by the Crystal Structure of the HIV-1 Nef
Pankaj Singh, Gaya Prasad Yadav, Sudeepti Gupta, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Ravishankar Ramachandran, Raj Kamal Tripathi
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026629
Abstract: HIV-1 Nef modulates disease progression through interactions with over 30 host proteins. Individual chains fold into membrane-interacting N-terminal and C-terminal core (Nefcore) domains respectively. Nef exists as small oligomers near membranes and associates into higher oligomers such as tetramers or hexadecamers in the cytoplasm. Earlier structures of the Nefcore in apo and complexed forms with the Fyn-kinase SH3 domain revealed dimeric association details and the role of the conserved PXXP recognition motif (residues 72–78) of Nef in SH3-domain interactions. The crystal structure of the tetrameric Nef reported here corresponds to the elusive cytoplasmic stage. Comparative analyses show that subunits of Nefcore dimers (open conformation) swing out with a relative displacement of ~22 ? and rotation of ~174° to form the ‘closed’ tetrameric structure. The changes to the association are around Asp125, a conserved residue important for viral replication and the important XR motif (residues 107–108). The tetramer associates through C4 symmetry instead of the 222 symmetry expected when two dimers associate together. This novel dimer-tetramer transition agrees with earlier solution studies including small angle X-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic laser light scattering and our glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments. Comparisons with the Nefcore—Fyn-SH3 domain complexes reveal that the PXXP motif that interacts with the SH3-domain in the dimeric form is sterically occluded in the tetramer. However the 151–180 loop that is distal to the PXXP motif and contains several protein interaction motifs remains accessible. The results suggest how changes to the oligomeric state of Nef can help it distinguish between protein partners.
Discovery of an isostructural phase transition within orthorhombic phase field of CaTiO3
Saurabh Tripathi,Anil Kumar,Sharmila Shirodkar,Masatomo Yashima,U. V. Waghmare,Dhananjai Pandey
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Earths lower mantle extending from 670 to 2,990 km deep is predominantly composed of a perovskite-type (Mg,Fe)SiO3 phase1,2. The perovskite phase undergoes a structural phase transition to a post-perovskite phase responsible for D" layer seismic discontinuity2,3 at about 2690 km depth in the lowermost region of the lower mantle. However, structural basis of other seismic discontinuities occurring in the upper region of the lower mantle (700 km to 1,200 km deep) remains unexplained4-7, as no apparent change in the crystal symmetry of the orthorhombic perovskite phase has been reported5. We present here unambiguous evidence for a non-apparent isostructural phase transition8 in the stable orthorhombic perovskite phase of CaTiO3 which may have relevance to phase transitions in the perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 also, as both the compounds have similar structure, tolerance factor and thermochemical properties9-11. Our results are based on the analysis of neutron powder diffraction patterns using Rietveld and mode crystallography techniques and are supported by density functional and Landau theory calculations. The present results on CaTiO3 would encourage search for isostructural phase transition in the perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 that may provide clue to the unexplained geophysical phenomena in the upper part of the earths lower mantle.
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