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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22149 matches for " Anil Kumar Pinnaka "
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Extracellular Polysaccharide Production by a Novel Osmotolerant Marine Strain of Alteromonas macleodii and Its Application towards Biomineralization of Silver
Ananya Mehta, Chandni Sidhu, Anil Kumar Pinnaka, Anirban Roy Choudhury
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098798
Abstract: The present study demonstrates exopolysaccharide production by an osmotolerant marine isolate and also describes further application of the purified polysaccharide for production of colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S r RNA gene sequencing revealed close affinity of the isolate to Alteromonas macleodii. Unlike earlier reports, where glucose was used as the carbon source, lactose was found to be the most suitable substrate for polysaccharide production. The strain was capable of producing 23.4 gl?1 exopolysaccharide with a productivity of 7.8 gl?1 day?1 when 15% (w/v) lactose was used as carbon source. Furthermore, the purified polysaccharide was able to produce spherical shaped silver nanoparticles of around 70 nm size as characterized by Uv-vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering and Transmission electron microscopy. These observations suggested possible commercial potential of the isolated strain for production of a polysaccharide which has the capability of synthesizing biocompatible metal nanoparticle.
Characterization of two antimicrobial peptides produced by a halotolerant Bacillus subtilis strain SK.DU.4 isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample
Piyush Baindara, Santi M Mandal, Niharika Chawla, Pradip Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar Pinnaka and Suresh Korpole
AMB Express , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2191-0855-3-2
Abstract: A bacterial strain producing two antimicrobial peptides was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. It grew optimally up to 14% NaCl and produced antimicrobial peptide within 24 h of growth. The peptides were purified using a combination of chemical extraction and chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-TOF analysis of HPLC purified fractions revealed that the strain SK.DU.4 secreted a bacteriocin-like peptide with molecular mass of 5323.9 Da and a surface-active lipopeptide (m/z 1056 Da). The peptide mass fingerprinting of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin exhibited significant similarity with stretches of secreted lipoprotein of Methylomicrobium album BG8 and displayed 70% sequence coverage. MALDI MS/MS analysis elucidated the lipopeptide as a cyclic lipopeptide with a β-hydroxy fatty acid linked to Ser of a peptide with seven α-amino acids (Asp-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser) and assigned it to iturin-like group of antimicrobial biosurfactants. However, it differed in amino acid composition with other members of the iturin family. Both peptides were active against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that they had an additive effect.
Agromyces arachidis sp. nov. Isolated from a Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Crop Field
Chandandeep Kaur,Anil Kumar Pinnaka,Nitin Kumar Singh,Monu Bala,Shanmugam Mayilraj
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/831308
Abstract: A Gram-positive, yellowish bacterium strain AK-1T was isolated from soil sample collected from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) crop field and studied by using a polyphasic approach. The organism had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Agromyces. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain AK-1T was closely related to Agromyces aurantiacus (98.6%) followed by Agromyces soli (98.3%), Agromyces tropicus (97.6%), Agromyces ulmi (97.3%), Agromyces flavus (97.2%), and Agromyces italicus (97.0%), whereas the sequence similarity values with respect to the other Agromyces species with validly published names were between 95.3 and 96.7?%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values obtained between strain AK-1T and other related strains were well below the threshold that is required for the proposal of a novel species. The DNA content of the strain is 71.8?mol%. The above data in combination with the phenotypic distinctiveness of AK-1T clearly indicate that the strain represents a novel species, for which the name Agromyces arachidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AK-1T (=MTCC 10524T = JCM 19251T). 1. Introduction The genus Agromyces was first proposed by Gledhill and Casida Jr [1] and later on emended by Zgurskaya et al. [2]. At present, the genus Agromyces comprises ??24 species with validly published names (http://www.bacterio.net/a/agromyces.html), and all these species have been isolated from different environmental sources: soils from fertile meadows, rhizosphere, and plants to rock art paintings [1–18]. In the present study, bacterial strain AK-1T, isolated from soil sample, is described and subjected to the polyphasic taxonomy. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the isolate is Agromyces-like organism. The aim of the present study is to determine the exact taxonomic position of the isolate. 2. Materials and Methods Strain AK-1T was isolated from a soil sample collected from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) crop field, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India (18°14′N latitude 83°58′E longitude), by the dilution-plate technique on tryptic soy agar medium (TSA; HiMedia) and maintained as glycerol stocks at ?70?°C. The reference strains A. aurantiacus (MTCC 11069T), A. soli (MTCC 11074T), A. tropicus (MTCC 11075T), A. ulmi (MTCC 10783T), A. flavus (MTCC 11103T), and A. italicus (MTCC 10784T) were obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Colony and cell morphologies were studied according to
Grimontia indica AK16T, sp. nov., Isolated from a Seawater Sample Reports the Presence of Pathogenic Genes Similar to Vibrio Genus
Aditya Singh, Bhumika Vaidya, Indu Khatri, T. N. R. Srinivas, Srikrishna Subramanian, Suresh Korpole, Anil Kumar Pinnaka
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085590
Abstract: Grimontia indica strain AK16T sp. nov. is the type strain of G. indica sp. nov. a new species within the genus Grimontia. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from seawater sample collected from southeast coast of Palk Bay, India. G. indica AK16T is a Gram-negative, facultative aerobic rod shaped bacterium. There are only two other strains in the genus Grimontia one of which, Grimontia hollisae CIP 101886T, is a reported human pathogen isolated from human stool sample while the other, ‘Grimontia marina IMCC5001T’, was isolated from a seawater sample. As compared to the pathogenic strain Grimontia hollisae CIP 101886T, the strain AK16T lacks some genes for pathogenesis like the accessory colonization factors AcfA and AcfD, which are required for the colonization of the bacterium in the host body. While it carries some pathogenesis genes like OmpU, which are related to pathogenesis of Vibrio strains. This suggests that the life cycle of AK16T may include some pathogenic interactions with marine animal(s), or it may be an opportunistic pathogen. Study of the Grimontia genus is important because of the severe pathogenic traits exhibited by a member of the genus with only three species reported in total. The study will provide some vital information which may be useful in future clinical studies on the genus.
Development of Flood Forecasting System Using Statistical and ANN Techniques in the Downstream Catchment of Mahanadi Basin, India  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Karl, Anil Kumar Lohani
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.210105
Abstract: The floods in river Mahanadi delta are due to either dam release of Hirakud or due to contribution of intercepted catchment between Hirakud dam and delta. It is seen from post-Hirakud periods (1958) that out of 19 floods 14 are due to intercepted catchment contribution. The existing flood forecasting systems are mostly for upstream catchment, forecasting the inflow to reservoir, whereas the downstream catchment is devoid of a sound flood forecasting system. Therefore, in this study an attempt has been made to develop a workable forecasting system for downstream catchment. Instead of taking the flow time series concurrent flood peaks of 12 years of base and forecasting stations with its corresponding travel time are considered for analysis. Both statistical method and ANN based approach are considered for finding the peak to reach at delta head with its corresponding travel time. The travel time has been finalized adopting clustering techniques, there by differentiating high, medium and low peaks. The method is simple and it does not take into consideration the rainfall and other factors in the intercepted catchment. A comparison between both methods are tested and it is found that the ANN methods are better beyond the calibration range over statistical method and the efficiency of either methods reduces as the prediction reach is extended. However, it is able to give the peak discharge at delta head before 24 hour to 37 hour for high to low peaks.
A River about to Die: Yamuna  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Misra
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25056
Abstract: River Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers of the India. It originates from Yamunotri glaciers in the lower Himalayas at an elevation of approximately 6387 meters. The barrages formed on the river are playing a major role in escalating the river pollution. River can be divided into five segments on the bases of hydro-logical and ecological conditions. Water quality of only one segment (Himalayan segment) meets the river water quality standards. Normally no water is allowed to flow downstream of the Himalayan segment (Te-jewala barrage) especially in the summer and winter seasons to fulfill the demand of water of the surround-ing area. Whatever water flows in the downstream of the Tajewala barrage is the untreated or partially treated domestic and Industrial wastewater contributed through various drains. The discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents have severely affected the quality of Yamuna River and now it falls under the category E, which makes it fit only for recreation and industrial cooling, completely ruling out the possi-bility for underwater life and domestic supply. Almost every year mass death of fishes is reported. Pollution levels in the Yamuna River have risen. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005: From 117 tonnes per day (TDP) in 1980 to 276 TDP in 2005. The Yamuna has been reduced to a small stream, draining industrial effluents, sewage, dirt and other toxic substances. There is an urgent need to take stringent measures to alleviate these pollution loads and save an ailing river.
Testability Models for Object-Oriented Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36061
Abstract: Frameworks are time-tested highly reusable architectural skeleton structures. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘inco- mplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one- time use application. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing a few metric models for testability analysis of object-oriented frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down.
Variability-Based Models for Testability Analysis of Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35051
Abstract: Frameworks are developed to capture the recurring design practices in terms of skeletons of software subsystems/ systems. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘incomplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one-time use application. It would be advisable to guaranty the production of high quality frameworks without incurring heavy costs for their rigorous testing. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing various metric models for testability analysis of frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down. The models considered herein particularly consider that frameworks are inherently abstract and variable in nature.
Treating NFR as First Grade for Its Testability  [PDF]
Pratima Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.512114

Practitioners and researchers in the field of software engineering have realized that Non Functional requirement have not received due attention and second grade (or no) treatment has been meted out to Non Functional Requirements. Many software products/systems are finally not acceptable because of such an approach. This casual approach of treating NFR has moved on to Testing also. Testing of NFR has never been taken seriously. Here in this work, we attempt to under- stand what needs to be done for proper consideration of NFR, so that they are treated as seriously as the Functional Requirements. In an attempt to treat NFR as seriously as FR we work on the testability of NFR by refining an abstract quality concern into concrete NFR statements. We show that quality concerns needs to be analyzed, for identifying and finally converting them into appropriate and unambiguous NFR. Once a high quality of NFR is ensured then the consequent testing of these NFRs will become as effective as that of Functional Requirement. We finally propose a revised model of Problem Analysis and Requirement Specification. A step wise refinement model for quality concern into test- able Non Functional Requirement is also proposed.

Bacterial Biofilm Degradation Using Extracellular Enzymes Produced by Penicillium janthinellum EU2D-21 under Submerged Fermentation  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Nagraj, Digambar Gokhale
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.89046
Abstract: Bacterial biofilms are the bacterial aggregates that are embedded in the self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that cause persistent bacterial infections posing significant medical challenges. They are recalcitrant to antibiotics and host defenses which make the treatments difficult and costly. Penicillium janthinellum mutant EU2D-21 was found to produce extracellular enzyme complex (amylase, cellulase, protease) under submerged fermentation. Maximum specific enzyme activities were found to be 3.04 IU/mg, 2.61 IU/mg and 3.39 IU/mg for alpha-amylase, cellulase and protease respectively, after 8 days of incubation at 30?C. We evaluated the enzyme complex for its ability to target and degrade the biofilms of different bacteria. We found that it degraded biofilms of Escherichia coli (85.5%), Salmonella enterica (79.72%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (88.76%) and Staphyloccus aureus (87.42%) within 1 h of incubation at 50?C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitation of biofilm removal assay and Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the enzyme complex detached the biofilm exo-polysaccharide matrix and bacteria from the cell surface. These results illustrate the feasibility and benefits of using this enzyme complex as anti-biofilm therapeutics to eradicate biofilms. This can also be used as a promising strategy to improve treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.
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