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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26369 matches for " Anil Kumar Karl "
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Development of Flood Forecasting System Using Statistical and ANN Techniques in the Downstream Catchment of Mahanadi Basin, India  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Karl, Anil Kumar Lohani
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.210105
Abstract: The floods in river Mahanadi delta are due to either dam release of Hirakud or due to contribution of intercepted catchment between Hirakud dam and delta. It is seen from post-Hirakud periods (1958) that out of 19 floods 14 are due to intercepted catchment contribution. The existing flood forecasting systems are mostly for upstream catchment, forecasting the inflow to reservoir, whereas the downstream catchment is devoid of a sound flood forecasting system. Therefore, in this study an attempt has been made to develop a workable forecasting system for downstream catchment. Instead of taking the flow time series concurrent flood peaks of 12 years of base and forecasting stations with its corresponding travel time are considered for analysis. Both statistical method and ANN based approach are considered for finding the peak to reach at delta head with its corresponding travel time. The travel time has been finalized adopting clustering techniques, there by differentiating high, medium and low peaks. The method is simple and it does not take into consideration the rainfall and other factors in the intercepted catchment. A comparison between both methods are tested and it is found that the ANN methods are better beyond the calibration range over statistical method and the efficiency of either methods reduces as the prediction reach is extended. However, it is able to give the peak discharge at delta head before 24 hour to 37 hour for high to low peaks.
A River about to Die: Yamuna  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Misra
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25056
Abstract: River Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers of the India. It originates from Yamunotri glaciers in the lower Himalayas at an elevation of approximately 6387 meters. The barrages formed on the river are playing a major role in escalating the river pollution. River can be divided into five segments on the bases of hydro-logical and ecological conditions. Water quality of only one segment (Himalayan segment) meets the river water quality standards. Normally no water is allowed to flow downstream of the Himalayan segment (Te-jewala barrage) especially in the summer and winter seasons to fulfill the demand of water of the surround-ing area. Whatever water flows in the downstream of the Tajewala barrage is the untreated or partially treated domestic and Industrial wastewater contributed through various drains. The discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents have severely affected the quality of Yamuna River and now it falls under the category E, which makes it fit only for recreation and industrial cooling, completely ruling out the possi-bility for underwater life and domestic supply. Almost every year mass death of fishes is reported. Pollution levels in the Yamuna River have risen. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005: From 117 tonnes per day (TDP) in 1980 to 276 TDP in 2005. The Yamuna has been reduced to a small stream, draining industrial effluents, sewage, dirt and other toxic substances. There is an urgent need to take stringent measures to alleviate these pollution loads and save an ailing river.
Testability Models for Object-Oriented Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36061
Abstract: Frameworks are time-tested highly reusable architectural skeleton structures. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘inco- mplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one- time use application. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing a few metric models for testability analysis of object-oriented frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down.
Variability-Based Models for Testability Analysis of Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35051
Abstract: Frameworks are developed to capture the recurring design practices in terms of skeletons of software subsystems/ systems. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘incomplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one-time use application. It would be advisable to guaranty the production of high quality frameworks without incurring heavy costs for their rigorous testing. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing various metric models for testability analysis of frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down. The models considered herein particularly consider that frameworks are inherently abstract and variable in nature.
Treating NFR as First Grade for Its Testability  [PDF]
Pratima Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.512114
Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers in the field of software engineering have realized that Non Functional requirement have not received due attention and second grade (or no) treatment has been meted out to Non Functional Requirements. Many software products/systems are finally not acceptable because of such an approach. This casual approach of treating NFR has moved on to Testing also. Testing of NFR has never been taken seriously. Here in this work, we attempt to under- stand what needs to be done for proper consideration of NFR, so that they are treated as seriously as the Functional Requirements. In an attempt to treat NFR as seriously as FR we work on the testability of NFR by refining an abstract quality concern into concrete NFR statements. We show that quality concerns needs to be analyzed, for identifying and finally converting them into appropriate and unambiguous NFR. Once a high quality of NFR is ensured then the consequent testing of these NFRs will become as effective as that of Functional Requirement. We finally propose a revised model of Problem Analysis and Requirement Specification. A step wise refinement model for quality concern into test- able Non Functional Requirement is also proposed.

Bacterial Biofilm Degradation Using Extracellular Enzymes Produced by Penicillium janthinellum EU2D-21 under Submerged Fermentation  [PDF]
Anil Kumar Nagraj, Digambar Gokhale
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.89046
Abstract: Bacterial biofilms are the bacterial aggregates that are embedded in the self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that cause persistent bacterial infections posing significant medical challenges. They are recalcitrant to antibiotics and host defenses which make the treatments difficult and costly. Penicillium janthinellum mutant EU2D-21 was found to produce extracellular enzyme complex (amylase, cellulase, protease) under submerged fermentation. Maximum specific enzyme activities were found to be 3.04 IU/mg, 2.61 IU/mg and 3.39 IU/mg for alpha-amylase, cellulase and protease respectively, after 8 days of incubation at 30?C. We evaluated the enzyme complex for its ability to target and degrade the biofilms of different bacteria. We found that it degraded biofilms of Escherichia coli (85.5%), Salmonella enterica (79.72%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (88.76%) and Staphyloccus aureus (87.42%) within 1 h of incubation at 50?C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitation of biofilm removal assay and Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the enzyme complex detached the biofilm exo-polysaccharide matrix and bacteria from the cell surface. These results illustrate the feasibility and benefits of using this enzyme complex as anti-biofilm therapeutics to eradicate biofilms. This can also be used as a promising strategy to improve treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.
Acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
Kumar, Anil;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652004000200024
Abstract: this paper deals with acoustic communication in the red-vented bulbul pycnonotus cafer. this species emits a high variety of vocal signals that can be classified on the basis of their acoustical features and context of production. individuals sang throughout the year and most songs were discrete and stereotyped. the songs were composed of strophes (phrases) with minor structural variations of elements that were preceded and followed by a temporal gap (3 to 12s). most strophes were composed of 2 to 6 elements that were often dissimilar in structure and ranging from 0.98 to 4.5 khz. the biological function of the song appeared to be to maintain pair bonds and to synchronize breeding activities. different types of context-specific calls were identified. individuals produced type-i alarm calls (fast and wide-band, 1.03 to 6.36 khz) under low predation pressure andtype-ii calls (narrowfrequency range, 1.37 to 3.39 khz) under high predation pressure. roosting calls were fast and wide-band signals phonetically similar to type-i alarm calls. three types of begging/contact calls were recorded in nestlings/fledglings. greeting calls and flight calls were composed of complex phrases, like song, but were short and used for proximate functions.
Removing the Problem of Erratic Continuity in Assembly of Lever Combination Switch using Continuous Improvement Process
Anil Kumar
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Company Mindarika had reported poor quality of particular products in the Assembly department which results in increasing cost, lead time, and customer complaints. The purpose of this study is to help Company Mindarika to improve the product quality and to manage the data for a continuous improvement plan by using Continuous Process Improvement and the Quality Control Techniques. Methods and procedures of this study include a review of literature relevant to Continuous Improvement, Quality Control Techniques, Root cause Analysis, Seven Tools of Quality and Assembly process of a specific automotive product (Lever Combination Switch). After the causes of defects were identified, solutions and procedures were recommended to the Company to eliminate defects in the assembly process of Lever Combination Switch.
Acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
Kumar Anil
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2004,
Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic communication in the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer. This species emits a high variety of vocal signals that can be classified on the basis of their acoustical features and context of production. Individuals sang throughout the year and most songs were discrete and stereotyped. The songs were composed of strophes (phrases) with minor structural variations of elements that were preceded and followed by a temporal gap (3 to 12s). Most strophes were composed of 2 to 6 elements that were often dissimilar in structure and ranging from 0.98 to 4.5 kHz. The biological function of the song appeared to be to maintain pair bonds and to synchronize breeding activities. Different types of context-specific calls were identified. Individuals produced Type-I alarm calls (fast and wide-band, 1.03 to 6.36 kHz) under low predation pressure andType-II calls (narrowfrequency range, 1.37 to 3.39 kHz) under high predation pressure. Roosting calls were fast and wide-band signals phonetically similar to Type-I alarm calls. Three types of begging/contact calls were recorded in nestlings/fledglings. Greeting calls and flight calls were composed of complex phrases, like song, but were short and used for proximate functions.
Design of Metrics for Customization of Component Based Software Module
Anil Kumar
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we will discuss such kind of metrics that are used tocustomize of software modules while software development takesplace through component based methodology. While thesemetrics are used to do this it helpful how to reduce complexitywhile further improvement takes place in software development.
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