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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462191 matches for " Angelika A. Schlarb "
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The Relation of Sleep, Distress, and Coping Strategies—What Male and Female Students Can Learn from Each Other?  [PDF]
Jasmin Faber, Angelika A. Schlarb
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.813136
Abstract: Sleep quality, distress, and coping strategies differ between male and female students. However, effects of gender on their relation have not been evaluated. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to confirm gender differences on sleep quality, chronic distress, and various coping strategies, as well as to examine gender differences in their relation to each other. A cross-sectional online study including several sleep-related self-report measures was completed by 6379 German students. After excluding all cases with missing data on the variables gender, psychiatric disorder, and medication, the final sample consisted of 5889 students with a mean age of 23.10 years (SD = 2.67) for men and 22.64 years (SD = 2.56) for women. Data from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress, and the Proactive Coping Inventory were analyzed. Results showed that women reported to have a poorer sleep quality, a higher level of chronic distress, and use social support more often than men. The hypothesized model revealed gender differences on the model level. However, these differences only occurred between avoidance coping and distress, as well as between various coping strategies. The biological gender influenced each of those three variables, but barely their relation to each other. Participants’ gender role might explain gender differences in coping strategies and their impact on distress. Furthermore, the type of stressor and subjective or objective measured sleep parameters might show more gender differences on this relation. Conclusively, gender-specific trainings or interventions are not necessary, however, gender differences should be considered during the implementation process.
The Effects of Parental ADHD Symptoms on Parenting Behaviors  [PDF]
Anja Friedrich, Jasmin Moning, Jacquie Weiss, Angelika A. Schlarb
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.97077
Abstract:
Adults suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) often display high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms might interfere with skills that are necessary for optimal parenting such as consequent and emotionally responsive behavior towards the child. Therefore, the present review aims at investigating how parental ADHD symptoms influence parenting, thereby including specific parental behaviors of both effective behavior control and emotional responsiveness. In order to identify eligible studies, a systematic search was conducted. Studies were included in this review if at least some of the investigated parents suffered from ADHD or heightened ADHD symptoms, and if the studies focused on specific parenting behaviors as outcome measures. 14 studies yielded the inclusion criteria. Across studies, parental ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with consistent discipline, parental involvement and positive parenting, and positively associated with lax and over-reactive parenting, intrusiveness and negative emotions. The core symptom of inattention had stronger negative effects on parenting than impulsivity and hyperactivity. Across studies, the gender of parents had inconsistent effects. All in all, the present review shows that parental ADHD is associated with serious impairments in parenting. Therefore, parents with ADHD should be specially addressed and trained in the context of children ADHD treatment.
Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems in a Representative Sample of German Children and Adolescents  [PDF]
Angelika A. Schlarb, Marco D. Gulewitsch, Victoria Weltzer, Ute Ellert, Paul Enck
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711154
Abstract: Objective: The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration for nighttime sleep from early infancy to late adolescence in a German sample to illustrate the developmental course and age-specific variability of these variables among subjects. Methods: A total of 17,641 subjects from the KiGGS study were evaluated. The questionnaires contained questions about physical health, living circumstances, health behavior and risks, health supply, mental health, health-related quality of life and sleep. KiGGS assessed sleep by using parent questionnaire of children aged 0 to 10 years (n = 9944) and self-reports of adolescents (n = 7697) aged 11 to 17 years. Results: Total sleep duration decreased from 14.28 hours (SD = 2.33) at the ages 0 - 0.5 to 9.50 hours (SD = 0.82) at the ages of 10.5 - 11. Above the age of 11 adolescents report a decrease of sleep at night from 9.41 hours (SD = 1.33) at the age of 11 - 11.5 to 7.42 (SD = 1.73) at the age of 17.5 - 18 years. Unspecified sleep problems were reported of 19.5%, 13.0% of the children had difficulties falling asleep, difficulties sleeping through the night showed 8.8% of the children, whereas 3.0% report both symptoms—difficulties falling asleep and difficulties sleeping through the night. Conclusions: Age-specific variability of sleep duration is reported as well as sleep difficulties from infancy to adolescence. This is important knowledge for the health care professional who deals with sleep problems in pediatric practice.
Infatuation and Lovesickness on Sleep Quality and Dreams in Adolescence  [PDF]
Angelika A. Schlarb, Nathalie Brock, Fridtjof W. Nussbeck, Merle Cla?en
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.91010
Abstract: Background: Infatuation and lovesickness are widespread and significant experiences in adolescence. Less is known about the connection between infatuation/lovesickness and sleep. The few studies, examining the link between infatuation and sleep quality show inconsistent results. The link between lovesickness and sleep as well as the link between infatuation/lovesickness and dreams has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to examine whether infatuation and lovesickness are linked to sleep quality and dreams in adolescents. Methods: A self-assessment online questionnaire was constructed to assess adolescents’ infatuation, lovesickness, sleep quality and dreams. In total, data of 630 adolescents and young adults (150 males, 480 females; aged 16 - 21) were analyzed in this study. Results: Infatuation did not relate to overall sleep quality and dreams. Sleep disturbances, as a component of overall sleep quality, were more frequent in infatuated adolescents. Adolescents currently suffering from lovesickness reported a significantly lower sleep quality, more negative dreams and nightmares. Furthermore, nightmares influenced them more strongly the next day. Conclusions: The associations between infatuation/lovesickness and sleep provide evidence for the far reaching effects of infatuation and lovesickness in adolescents’ lives. The fact that lovesickness leads to lower sleep quality and more negative dreams should be integrated in new approaches of insomnia treatment.
Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists
Angelika A. Schlarb,Dorota Reis,Annette Schr?der
Sleep Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/806913
Abstract: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1–28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction. 1. Introduction Sleep is fundamental for physical and emotional recovery. Therefore, sleeping well is essential to overcome successfully daily hassles and to prevent long-term negative effects of stress on health. In general, health or good sleep seems to be very important for both physiological and psychological well-being. Stress leads to psychological and physiological arousal, and, therefore, leads to impaired sleep [1]. Work overload is connected with several sleep difficulties, such as difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and nonrestorative, sleep [2]. Furthermore, people who perceive their work as hectic or exhausting suffer from disturbed sleep and fatigue significantly more often [3]. Stress due to an imbalance between effort and reward seems to be connected with sleep disturbances [4], whereas this association seems to be more common amongst men [5]. Linton showed that employees without sleeping problems at baseline had a twofold risk of sleep difficulties one year later, after having experienced stress, such as a poor psychosocial work environment [6]. Ota and colleagues showed that low social support and an effort-reward imbalance among insomniacs were significantly associated with insomnia at followup. On the other hand, overcommitment to work and high job strain among health persons at baseline were associated with insomnia at
JuSt – a multimodal program for treatment of insomnia in adolescents: a pilot study
Angelika A Schlarb, Christina C Liddle, Martin Hautzinger
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S14493
Abstract: St – a multimodal program for treatment of insomnia in adolescents: a pilot study Original Research (3984) Total Article Views Authors: Angelika A Schlarb, Christina C Liddle, Martin Hautzinger Published Date December 2010 Volume 2011:3 Pages 13 - 20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S14493 Angelika A Schlarb, Christina C Liddle, Martin Hautzinger Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany Abstract: Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in adolescents. A number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of the management of chronic insomnia in adults. Behavioral therapy for insomnia is the treatment of first choice, encompassing education about sleep and sleep hygiene, stimulus control, relaxation techniques, and cognitive strategies to combat nocturnal ruminations. Special programs for adolescents are lacking. In this study an age-oriented treatment program for adolescents (JuSt) was developed and evaluated. Eighteen adolescents and their parents participated in a psychological short-term treatment comprising six sessions. First results show that the treatment was well accepted by the adolescents and their parents and led to a significant reduction in sleep problems, such as sleep onset, sleep efficacy, sleep duration, and feeling rested as well as in cognitive parameters, such as ruminations and mental health. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new approach to treat insomnia in adolescents.
First effects of a multicomponent treatment for sleep disorders in children
Angelika A Schlarb, Kerstin Velten-Schurian, Christian F Poets, et al
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S15254
Abstract: st effects of a multicomponent treatment for sleep disorders in children Original Research (4430) Total Article Views Authors: Angelika A Schlarb, Kerstin Velten-Schurian, Christian F Poets, et al Published Date December 2010 Volume 2011:3 Pages 1 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S15254 Angelika A Schlarb1, Kerstin Velten-Schurian1, Christian F Poets2, Martin Hautzinger1 1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, 2Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Tübingen, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany Abstract: Insomnia in children is a common disorder, yet only few child-specific treatment modalities exist so far. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention program for children with insomnia at 5–10 years of age and their parents. The program was a structured six-session behavioral and hypnotherapeutic group treatment with three sessions for the children and three for their parents. Thirty-eight children (5.1–10.9 years) were randomly assigned to the specific treatment condition or waiting list plus sleep diary control condition. Twenty-two children participated in the treatment group and 16 in the control group. All children suffered from insomnia according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria. Sleep symptoms were assessed with a sleep diary and the German version of the Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Although both conditions showed a significant decrease in several sleep symptoms, the treatment group exhibited a significantly greater improvement with regard to CSHQ and SDSC total scores as well as in several sleep parameters, reflecting the most important features of the intervention program, such as bedtime, sleep-related anxiety, night waking, and sleeping in parents' bed. By contrast, the control group’s data revealed only unspecific effects. These pilot data suggest that insomnia in childhood can be treated effectively with this child-specific multicomponent group treatment.
Recurrent abdominal pain in children and adolescents – a survey among paediatricians
Angelika A. Schlarb,Marco D. Gulewitsch,Inga Bock genannt Kasten,Paul Enck
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Little is known about prevalence and usual treatment of childhood and adolescent recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in outpatient paediatricians’ practice. This study’s primary objective was to acquire insights into the usual paediatricians’ treatment and their estimation of prevalence, age and gender of RAP patients. Further objectives were to assess to which extent family members of patients report similar symptoms, how paediatricians rate the strain of parents of affected children and adolescents and how paediatricians estimate the demand for psychological support. Methods: Provided by a medical register, 437 outpatient paediatricians received a questionnaire to assess their perception of several psychosomatic problems and disorders including recurrent abdominal pain. Results: According to paediatricians’ estimation, 15% of all visits are caused by patients with RAP. In 22% of these cases of RAP, at least one family member has similar problems. In about 15% of all RAP cases, parents ask for professional psychological support concerning their children’s issues, whereas 40% of paediatricians wish for psychological support considering this group of patients. Conclusions: Estimated frequencies and paediatricians’ demands show the need for evidence-based psychological interventions in RAP to support usual medical treatment.
Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Marco D. Gulewitsch,Paul Enck,Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke,Katja Weimer,Angelika A. Schlarb
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/206574
Abstract: Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students ( years; 48.3% males) with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS ( years; 50.3% males) and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R) and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls) reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples. 1. Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel function without an explanatory organic etiology. Despite constipation and/or diarrhea, additional gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating and sensation of incomplete evacuation are experienced quite often. Epidemiologic data on this disorder vary a lot depending on the examined sample and the diagnostic criteria used. The prevalence of IBS in the general population is estimated to be in the range between 10% and 20% [1–5]. Our previous study has shown that the prevalence of Rome III IBS symptoms among German university students is 18.1% with a significant difference between males (15.2%) and females (21.0%) [6]. IBS, especially in a moderate or severe manifestation, has a considerable impact on health-related quality of life and daily functioning [7–9]. The pathogenic mechanisms of IBS are not fully known. There is strong evidence of altered physiologic features of persons suffering from IBS such as abnormal gastrointestinal motility [10–12] and heightened visceral sensitivity [13–15]. Gastrointestinal infections have
Did You Sleep Well, Darling?—Link between Sleep Quality and Relationship Quality  [PDF]
Angelika Anita Schlarb, Merle Cla?en, E.-S. Schuster, Frank Neuner, Martin Hautzinger
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.712190
Abstract: Background: Relationship quality and sleep quality influenced physiological and psychological health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine a possible connection between relationship satisfaction and sleep quality and to test a theoretical model of sleep quality as related to relationship and psychological well-being. Methods: Fifty-one heterosexual, cohabitating couples between 24 and 70 years old participated. The relationship quality was measured by the German short version of relationship questionnaire. To determine the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a two-week sleep diary were implemented. To gather information about psychological well-being, especially depression and anxiety, the German Symptom Checklist was used. Results: Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relationship quality correlated significantly negative. In addition, the study found a positive correlation between sleep duration and relationship quality. In a multiple regression model, fighting and mental strain explained 38% of variance of sleep quality. Depression, anxiety and relationship quality showed no further improvement of the model. These findings suggested that relationship quality, constructive partnership behavior and mental strain played an essential role in sleep quality.
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