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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403023 matches for " Andy M. Reynolds "
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Free-Flight Odor Tracking in Drosophila Is Consistent with an Optimal Intermittent Scale-Free Search
Andy M. Reynolds, Mark A. Frye
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000354
Abstract: During their trajectories in still air, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) explore their landscape using a series of straight flight paths punctuated by rapid 90° body-saccades [1]. Some saccades are triggered by visual expansion associated with collision avoidance. Yet many saccades are not triggered by visual cues, but rather appear spontaneously. Our analysis reveals that the control of these visually independent saccades and the flight intervals between them constitute an optimal scale-free active searching strategy. Two characteristics of mathematical optimality that are apparent during free-flight in Drosophila are inter-saccade interval lengths distributed according to an inverse square law, which does not vary across landscape scale, and 90° saccade angles, which increase the likelihood that territory will be revisited and thereby reduce the likelihood that near-by targets will be missed. We also show that searching is intermittent, such that active searching phases randomly alternate with relocation phases. Behaviorally, this intermittency is reflected in frequently occurring short, slow speed inter-saccade intervals randomly alternating with rarer, longer, faster inter-saccade intervals. Searching patterns that scale similarly across orders of magnitude of length (i.e., scale-free) have been revealed in animals as diverse as microzooplankton, bumblebees, albatrosses, and spider monkeys, but these do not appear to be optimised with respect to turning angle, whereas Drosophila free-flight search does. Also, intermittent searching patterns, such as those reported here for Drosophila, have been observed in foragers such as planktivorous fish and ground foraging birds. Our results with freely flying Drosophila may constitute the first reported example of searching behaviour that is both scale-free and intermittent.
Comment on ``Dynamical Foundations of Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics"
Alice M. Crawford,Nicolas Mordant,Andy M. Reynolds,Eberhard Bodenschatz
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: In a recent letter, Christian Beck described a theoretical link between a family of stochastic differential equations and the probability density functions (PDF) derived from the formalism of nonextensive statistical mechanics. He applied the theory to explain experimentally measured PDFs from fully developed fluid turbulence. Here we present new experimental results with better statistics which show that the linear model propose by C. Beck does not capture the experimental observations.
Orientation Cues for High-Flying Nocturnal Insect Migrants: Do Turbulence-Induced Temperature and Velocity Fluctuations Indicate the Mean Wind Flow?
Andy M. Reynolds,Don R. Reynolds,Alan D. Smith,Jason W. Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015758
Abstract: Migratory insects flying at high altitude at night often show a degree of common alignment, sometimes with quite small angular dispersions around the mean. The observed orientation directions are often close to the downwind direction and this would seemingly be adaptive in that large insects could add their self-propelled speed to the wind speed, thus maximising their displacement in a given time. There are increasing indications that high-altitude orientation may be maintained by some intrinsic property of the wind rather than by visual perception of relative ground movement. Therefore, we first examined whether migrating insects could deduce the mean wind direction from the turbulent fluctuations in temperature. Within the atmospheric boundary-layer, temperature records show characteristic ramp-cliff structures, and insects flying downwind would move through these ramps whilst those flying crosswind would not. However, analysis of vertical-looking radar data on the common orientations of nocturnally migrating insects in the UK produced no evidence that the migrants actually use temperature ramps as orientation cues. This suggests that insects rely on turbulent velocity and acceleration cues, and refocuses attention on how these can be detected, especially as small-scale turbulence is usually held to be directionally invariant (isotropic). In the second part of the paper we present a theoretical analysis and simulations showing that velocity fluctuations and accelerations felt by an insect are predicted to be anisotropic even when the small-scale turbulence (measured at a fixed point or along the trajectory of a fluid-particle) is isotropic. Our results thus provide further evidence that insects do indeed use turbulent velocity and acceleration cues as indicators of the mean wind direction.
The Ontogeny of Bumblebee Flight Trajectories: From Na?ve Explorers to Experienced Foragers
Juliet L. Osborne, Alan Smith, Suzanne J. Clark, Don R. Reynolds, Mandy C. Barron, Ka S. Lim, Andy M. Reynolds
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078681
Abstract: Understanding strategies used by animals to explore their landscape is essential to predict how they exploit patchy resources, and consequently how they are likely to respond to changes in resource distribution. Social bees provide a good model for this and, whilst there are published descriptions of their behaviour on initial learning flights close to the colony, it is still unclear how bees find floral resources over hundreds of metres and how these flights become directed foraging trips. We investigated the spatial ecology of exploration by radar tracking bumblebees, and comparing the flight trajectories of bees with differing experience. The bees left the colony within a day or two of eclosion and flew in complex loops of ever-increasing size around the colony, exhibiting Lévy-flight characteristics constituting an optimal searching strategy. This mathematical pattern can be used to predict how animals exploring individually might exploit a patchy landscape. The bees’ groundspeed, maximum displacement from the nest and total distance travelled on a trip increased significantly with experience. More experienced bees flew direct paths, predominantly flying upwind on their outward trips although forage was available in all directions. The flights differed from those of na?ve honeybees: they occurred at an earlier age, showed more complex looping, and resulted in earlier returns of pollen to the colony. In summary bumblebees learn to find home and food rapidly, though phases of orientation, learning and searching were not easily separable, suggesting some multi-tasking.
Regulation of Black Hole Winds and Jets Across the Mass Scale
Ashley L. King,Jon M. Miller,John Raymond,Andy C. Fabian,Chris S. Reynolds,Kayhan Gultekin,Edward M. Cackett,Steven W. Allen,Daniel Proga,Tim R. Kallman
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/762/2/103
Abstract: We present a study of the mechanical power generated by both winds and jets across the black hole mass scale. We begin with the study of ionized X-ray winds and present a uniform analysis using Chandra grating spectra. The high quality grating spectra facilitate the characterization of the outflow velocity, ionization and column density of the absorbing gas. We find that the kinetic power of the winds scales with increasing bolometric luminosity as log(L_wind) \propto (1.58 \pm 0.07) log(L_Bol). This means that SMBH may be more efficient than stellar-mass black holes in launching winds. In addition, the simplicity of the scaling may suggest common driving mechanisms across the mass scale. For comparison, we next examine jet production, estimating jet power based on the energy required to inflate local bubbles. The jet relation is log(L_Jet)\propto (1.18\pm0.24) log(L_Bol). The energetics of the bubble associated with Cygnus X-1 are particularly difficult to determine, and the bubble could be a background SNR. If we exclude Cygnus X-1, then the jets follow a consistent relation to the winds within errors but with a higher normalization, log(L_Jet) \propto (1.34 \pm 0.50) log(L_Bol). The formal consistency in the wind and jet scaling relations suggests that a common launching mechanism may drive both flows; magnetic processes are viable possibilities. We also examine winds with especially high velocities, v > 0.01c. These ultra-fast outflows tend to resemble the jets more than the winds, indicating we may be observing a regime in which winds become jets. This study allows for the total power from black hole accretion, both mechanical and radiative, to be characterized in a simple manner and suggests a possible connection between winds and jets. Finally, we find at low Eddington fractions, the jet power is dominant, and at high Eddington fractions the wind power is dominant.
A Distinctive Disk-Jet Coupling in the Seyfert-1 AGN NGC 4051
Ashley L. King,Jon M. Miller,Edward M. Cackett,Andy C. Fabian,Sera Markoff,Michael A. Nowak,Michael Rupen,Kayhan Gultekin,Mark T. Reynolds
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/729/1/19
Abstract: We report on the results of a simultaneous monitoring campaign employing eight Chandra X-ray (0.5-10 keV) and six VLA/EVLA (8.4 GHz) radio observations of NGC 4051 over seven months. Evidence for compact jets is observed in the 8.4 GHz radio band; This builds on mounting evidence that jet production may be prevalent even in radio-quiet Seyferts. Assuming comparatively negligible local diffuse emission in the nucleus, the results also demonstrate an inverse correlation of L_radio proportional to L_X-ray ^(-0.72+/-0.04) . Current research linking the mass of supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes in the "low/hard" state to X-ray luminosities and radio luminosities suggest a "fundamental plane of accretion onto black holes" that has a positive correlation of L_radio proportional to L_X-ray^(0.67+/-0.12) . Our simultaneous results differ from this relation by more than 11 sigma, indicating that a separate mode of accretion and ejection may operate in this system. A review of the literature shows that the inverse correlation seen in NGC 4051 is seen in three other black hole systems, all of which accrete at near 10% of their Eddington luminosity, perhaps suggesting a distinct mode of disk-jet coupling at high Eddington fractions. We discuss our results in the context of disk and jets in black holes and accretion across the black hole mass scale.
An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624
Ashley L. King,Jon M. Miller,John Raymond,Andy C. Fabian,Chris S. Reynolds,Tim R. Kallman,Dipankar Maitra,Edward M. Cackett,Michael P. Rupen
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/746/2/L20
Abstract: {\it Chandra} spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk--dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of $\sim$1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two {\it Chandra} High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091$-$3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second {\it Chandra} observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91$\pm$0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of $9300^{+500}_{-400}$ km/s (0.03$c$, or the escape velocity at 1000 R$_{Schw}$). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of $\sim 14600$ km/s (0.05$c$), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091$-$3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole, and may be expelling more gas than accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our {\it Chandra} observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems.
The Complexity of Temporal Logic over the Reals
M. Reynolds
Computer Science , 1999,
Abstract: It is shown that the decision problem for the temporal logic with until and since connectives over real-numbers time is PSPACE-complete.
The Duhem-Quine thesis and the dark matter problem
M. A. Reynolds
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: There are few opportunities in introductory physics for a genuine discussion of the philosophy of science, especially in cases where the physical principles are straightforward and the mathematics is simple. Terrestrial classical mechanics satisfies these requirements, but students new to physics usually carry too many incorrect or misleading preconceptions about the subject for it to be analyzed epistemologically. The problem of dark matter, and especially the physics of spiral galaxy velocity rotation curves, is a straightforward application of Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, and is just enough removed from everyday experience to be analyzed from a fresh perspective. It is proposed to teach students about important issues in the philosophy of physics, including Bacon's induction, Popper's falsifiability, and the Duhem-Quine thesis, all in light of the dark matter problem. These issues can be discussed in an advanced classical mechanics course, or, with limited simplification, at the end of a first course in introductory mechanics. The goal is for students to understand at a deeper level how the physics community has arrived at the current state of knowledge.
Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model  [PDF]
Ramana M. Pidaparti, Matthew Burnette, Rebecca L. Heise, Angela Reynolds
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69110
Abstract: Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the parameters such as pressures/ velocities and displacements/stresses under mechanical ventilation conditions. The results obtained from the fluid analysis indicate that both the alveolar geometries give similar results for pressures and velocities. However, the results obtained from coupled fluid-solid analysis indicate that the actual alveolar geometry results in smaller displacements in comparison to a spherical alveolar model. This trend is also true for stress/strain between the two models. The results presented indicate that alveolar geometry greatly affects the pressure/velocities as well as displacements and stresses/strains.
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