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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 88836 matches for " Andy I. Bary "
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Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications
Richard T. Koenig,Craig G. Cogger,Andy I. Bary
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/925462
Abstract: Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400?kg?ha?1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting. 1. Introduction Biosolids are an effective and relatively safe source of nitrogen (N) for dryland wheat production [1–3]. Applied at agronomic rates, biosolids can supply sufficient N to maximize yield, as well as a host of other nutrients that can benefit crops in a rotational sequence [4, 5]. Determining appropriate agronomic application rates is paramount in balancing nutrient (mainly N) needs of wheat without increasing the risk of nitrate (NO3?) leaching. Considerable research has been devoted to this subject [3, 5]. In the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) USA, soft white winter wheat is the predominant crop grown on over 2.75 million ha of mainly dryland (rainfed) cropland [6]. The majority of this wheat is exported and used to make unleavened products such as flat breads, noodles, and cakes [7]. Low-grain protein concentration (<10%) is desirable when producing unleavened products. High-grain protein concentration in soft white winter wheat has been a problem in the PNW due, in part, to high soil N levels [7]. Previous biosolids research in this area has shown that agronomic applications at or above rates required to maximize yield may produce undesirably high grain protein concentrations in soft white winter wheat [3, 5]. While high grain protein concentration is detrimental for soft wheat end uses, high protein is desirable in hard red and white winter wheats, with optimum targets of approximately 11.5 and 12.5%,
Estimating Nitrogen Availability of Heat-Dried Biosolids
Craig G. Cogger,Andy I. Bary,Elizabeth A. Myhre
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/190731
Abstract: As heat-dried biosolids become more widely produced and marketed, it is important to improve estimates of N availability from these materials. Objectives were to compare plant-available N among three different heat-dried biosolids and determine if current guidelines were adequate for estimating application rates. Heat-dried biosolids were surface applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in Washington State, USA, and forage yield and N uptake measured for two growing seasons following application. Three rates of urea and a zero-N control were used to calculate N fertilizer efficiency regressions. Application year plant-available N (estimated as urea N equivalent) for two biosolids exceeded 60% of total N applied, while urea N equivalent for the third biosolids was 45%. Residual (second-year) urea N equivalent ranged from 5 to 10%. Guidelines for the Pacific Northwest USA recommend mineralization estimates of 35 to 40% for heat-dried biosolids, but this research shows that some heat-dried materials fall well above that range. 1. Introduction Heat-dried biosolids are convenient to use in a variety of applications. The Class A heat-dried product is suitable as a fertilizer on lawns and gardens as well as for agricultural crops. Heat-dried biosolids are easy to transport and handle and are applied like inorganic fertilizers, except at higher rates. Because a large proportion of the nitrogen (N) in biosolids is in organic form, biosolids act as a slow-release N source, dependent on biological transformation of the organic N into available forms. Accurate estimates of the mineralization rate of biosolids N are critical to developing application rate recommendations that meet plant needs without compromising environmental quality. Smith and Durham [1] used laboratory incubation to compare five different biosolids sources with and without heat drying, and found that the mineralization rates of the heat-dried biosolids were more than double the undried (dewatered only) materials. This rapid mineralization more than compensated for the lower initial ammonium N in the heat-dried biosolids. Rigby et al. [2] observed similar results in a field incubation, estimating mineralizable N from heat-dried biosolids at twice that for dewatered biosolids. Matsuoka et al. [3] and Moritsuka et al. [4] produced heat-dried biosolids in an experimental scale vessel reaching final temperatures of 120 and 180°C. They found increased available N in the 120°C heat-dried biosolids compared with undried biosolids in laboratory incubation and pot studies. Heat drying to a
Comparison of Raw Dairy Manure Slurry and Anaerobically Digested Slurry as N Sources for Grass Forage Production
Olivia E. Saunders,Ann-Marie Fortuna,Joe H. Harrison,Elizabeth Whitefield,Craig G. Cogger,Ann C. Kennedy,Andy I. Bary
International Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/101074
Abstract: We conducted a 3-year field study to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate concentrations relative to urea. Annual N applications ranged from 600?kg?N?ha?1 in 2009 to 300?kg?N?ha?1 in 2011. Forage yield and N uptake were similar across slurry treatments. Soil nitrate concentrations were greatest at the beginning of the fall leaching season, and did not differ among slurry treatments or application methods. Urea-fertilized plots had the highest soil nitrate concentrations but did not consistently have greatest forage biomass. ANR for the slurry treatments ranged from 35 to 70% when calculations were based on ammonium-N concentration, compared with 31 to 65% for urea. Slurry ANR calculated on a total N basis was lower (15 to 40%) due to lower availability of the organic N in the slurries. No consistent differences in soil microbial biomass or other biological indicators were observed. Anaerobically digested slurry supported equal forage production and similar N use efficiency when compared to raw dairy slurry. 1. Introduction There is a need for a set of best management practices that addresses how to utilize the growing quantity of reactive nitrogen (N) produced by livestock operations. Animal agriculture in the United States has become more specialized with farms consolidating and growing in size [1]. The number of dairy farms has decreased by 94% since 1960, but the number of animals has remained constant [2]. Animal consolidation has created challenges with respect to on-farm N surplus, waste management and nutrient loading in the environment [3, 4]. Annually in the United States, more than 5800?Mg of manure N is produced [5]. One approach to ameliorate negative environmental impacts associated with animal manures is through adoption of anaerobic digestion technologies to treat farm-generated manures and food processing wastes [6–9]. Digestion of wastes can provide a stable and consistent source of nutrients comparable to inorganic fertilizers such as urea. Anaerobic digestion converts organic carbon into methane used to generate electricity, and it also converts organic N to plant available ammonium ( ), increasing the ratio of /total N in the effluent [10]. Carbon is removed during both the methane production and fiber removal processes, resulting in a smaller C?:?N ratio of the effluent [11]. Therefore, digested
A Chronological Perspective on the Acheulian and Its Transition to the Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa: The Question of the Fauresmith
Andy I. R. Herries
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/961401
Abstract: An understanding of the age of the Acheulian and the transition to the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa has been hampered by a lack of reliable dates for key sequences in the region. A number of researchers have hypothesised that the Acheulian first occurred simultaneously in southern and eastern Africa at around 1.7-1.6?Ma. A chronological evaluation of the southern African sites suggests that there is currently little firm evidence for the Acheulian occurring before 1.4?Ma in southern Africa. Many researchers have also suggested the occurrence of a transitional industry, the Fauresmith, covering the transition from the Early to Middle Stone Age, but again, the Fauresmith has been poorly defined, documented, and dated. Despite the occurrence of large cutting tools in these Fauresmith assemblages, they appear to include all the technological components characteristic of the MSA. New data from stratified Fauresmith bearing sites in southern Africa suggest this transitional industry maybe as old as 511–435?ka and should represent the beginning of the MSA as a broad entity rather than the terminal phase of the Acheulian. The MSA in this form is a technology associated with archaic H. sapiens and early modern humans in Africa with a trend of greater complexity through time. 1. Introduction In the most recent reorganisation of the Pleistocene period (2.58?Ma–0.01?Ma [1]), the Ionian is defined as a geological stage between the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary at 781?ka (end of the Calabrian stage 1.81–0.78?Ma) and the beginning of Marine Isotope Stage 5 interglacial period at 126?ka (beginning of the Upper Pleistocene 126–11.7?ka). Just prior to this is a period termed the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (or revolution [2]). This is the transition from what is known as the 41?ka world to the 100?ka world, essentially a switch from 41?ka to 100?ka cyclicity in glacial cycles [2]. This led to major environmental changes in Africa from about 1.0?Ma to 700?ka [2]. The Ionian is also a period when a broad group of potential modern human ancestors attributed to “archaic Homo sapiens”, (or more specifically to Homo heidelbergensis, Homo helmei, or Homo rhodesiensis) evolved to become the first anatomically modern humans. Noonan et al. [3] suggest that the split between Neandertal and ancestral H. sapiens populations occurred at ~370?ka and that divergence from a last common ancestor occurred at ~706?ka. In Europe, H. heidelbergensis fossils such as those from Sima de los Huesos at 530?ka [4] may represent fossils occurring soon after this initial split from a common
An infinite plate with a curvilinear hole in S-plane
A. A. El-Bary,I. H. El-Sirafy
Le Matematiche , 1999,
Abstract: Cauchy integral method has been applied to derive exact and closed expressions for Goursat's functions for the first and second fundamental problems for the infinite plate weakened by a hole having arbitrary shape. The plate considered are conformally mapped on the area of the right half-plane. The work of many previous authors are considered as special cases of this work and the interesting cases when the the shape of the hole is an ellipse, a crescent, a triangle, or a cut having the shape of a circular are include as special cases.
Learning Using 1-Local Membership Queries
Galit Bary
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Classic machine learning algorithms learn from labelled examples. For example, to design a machine translation system, a typical training set will consist of English sentences and their translation. There is a stronger model, in which the algorithm can also query for labels of new examples it creates. E.g, in the translation task, the algorithm can create a new English sentence, and request its translation from the user during training. This combination of examples and queries has been widely studied. Yet, despite many theoretical results, query algorithms are almost never used. One of the main causes for this is a report (Baum and Lang, 1992) on very disappointing empirical performance of a query algorithm. These poor results were mainly attributed to the fact that the algorithm queried for labels of examples that are artificial, and impossible to interpret by humans. In this work we study a new model of local membership queries (Awasthi et al., 2012), which tries to resolve the problem of artificial queries. In this model, the algorithm is only allowed to query the labels of examples which are close to examples from the training set. E.g., in translation, the algorithm can change individual words in a sentence it has already seen, and then ask for the translation. In this model, the examples queried by the algorithm will be close to natural examples and hence, hopefully, will not appear as artificial or random. We focus on 1-local queries (i.e., queries of distance 1 from an example in the training sample). We show that 1-local membership queries are already stronger than the standard learning model. We also present an experiment on a well known NLP task of sentiment analysis. In this experiment, the users were asked to provide more information than merely indicating the label. We present results that illustrate that this extra information is beneficial in practice.
The Ethics of Direct Primary Care  [PDF]
Andy Wible
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2019.91003
Abstract: Direct primary care (DPC) is a market based approach to providing medical care. Patients avoid insurance and directly pay a monthly membership type of fee to physicians for unlimited access. DPC practices have been growing throughout the United States by claiming to be better for patients and primary care physicians. This paper looks into the ethical implications of such practices and explores future moral concerns if DPC continues to expand. Finally, from a societal perspective, regulated universal coverage, as provided in countries such as Japan, is examined as a way to achieve most of the benefits of DPC while avoiding many of the problems.
An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potency of Lasianthera africana (BEAUV) and Heinsia crinata (G. Taylor) on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans
Andy, I. E.,Eja, M. E.,Mboto, C. I.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Information on the potency of many African medical plants against microorganisms is scanty, and in the current wave of antimicrobial resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs, there is need to search for plants that could be resistance-free and affordable. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of the extracts of Lasianthera africana (E1) and Heinsia crinata (E2) in combination with chloramphenicol, on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphlococcus aureus and Candida albicans. For this purpose, the dilution sensitivity and disc diffusion techniques were respectively applied in determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts, and the sensitivities of the organisms to the plant extracts and their combinations with chloramphenicol. L. africana and H. crinata showed very high antimicrobial activity against all the test organisms. In combination, the effect of E1 on E. coli and S. typhi was completely antagonized by that of E2, whereas additive effect on S. aureus and C. albicans was observed, indicating that the combination of E1 and E2 might be effective against gram positive pathogenic organisms. The combination of either plant extract with chloramphenicol produced synergistic effect on only C. albicans. The smaller MIC of E2 indicated greater effectivity than E1. It is concluded that the additive effect produced by the combination of the two plant extracts, and the synergic effect from the combination of any of the extracts with chloramphenicol, offer alternative therapy to gram positive bacterial infections and candidiasis respectively.
Récits d’Ellis Island (Georges Perec). Des récits contestés
Cécile de Bary
Cahiers de Narratologie , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/narratologie.942
Abstract: Le film que Robert Bober et Georges Perec ont consacré à l’ lot situé face à New York par lequel sont passés la plupart des immigrants de la fin du XIXe siècle et du début du XXe siècle est constitué de deux parties, la deuxième étant consacrée aux témoignages d’anciens immigrants. La première partie, objet de cet article, met les témoignages de ceux-ci en perspective, puisqu’elle est construite autour de plusieurs interrogations, par exemple sur la possibilité de restituer leur histoire, ou sur la relation que les auteurs du film entretiennent avec celle-ci. Je souhaiterais étudier le commentaire de ce film à partir de son dossier génétique qui figure dans les archives Perec (fonds privé en dép t à la BNF). On voit grace à lui comment le projet s’appuie d’abord sur des histoires multiples pour de plus en plus les mettre à distance : le descriptif domine dès lors et le commentaire, qui énonce aussi un discours autobiographique à deux voix. Perec y explicite pour la première fois ce que représente pour lui la judéité : refusant de ressasser les légendes de l’immigration américaine, le trop-plein des anecdotes, il se confronte à son histoire brisée, marquée par l’absence.
Quand l’idée fixe se met à table
Cécile de Bary
Cahiers de Narratologie , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/narratologie.572
Abstract: Un livre de cuisine, comme A table de Claudian, édité en 1963, peut relever de la prose d’idées dans la mesure où son projet est sous-tendu par une idéologie très précise, qui seule lui donne sa cohérence. Si l’ethnocentrisme consiste à ne pas reconna tre à l’autre une culture, par exemple, ce livre appara t comme ethnocentrique, puisqu’il a pour projet de départager les peuples qui savent et ceux qui ne savent pas. Il est encore réactionnaire, voué au rétablissement des savoir-faire des terroirs, contre les corruptions parisiennes en particulier. Dès lors, la présentation d’un plat est toujours susceptible de s’étendre ou de se faire discours, sous la poussée d’un lyrisme acrimonieux. Pour autant, il ne s’agit pas d’un faux livre de cuisine, d’un traité ou d’une physiologie . La recette est l’aboutissement logique de l’idée fixe. Elle est le lieu d’une bataille que l’argumentation sert, qu’elle met en scène et qu’elle prépare.
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