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El IV Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba
Eva ANDUIZA PEREA
América Latina Hoy , 2009,
Abstract: RESUMEN: El IV Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba, celebrado en octubre de 1991, estuvo marcado por una voluntad continuista. Aunque el país atraviesa una de sus peores crisis, las reformas fueron pocas, dirigidas principalmente a aumentar la representatividad del partido y el grado de democracia en su funcionamiento interno. En el aspecto económico el único cambio fue el permitir a ciertas categorías profesionales el trabajo por cuenta propia. ABSTRACT: The IV congress of the Cuban Communist Party, held in October 1991 showed a will of continuity. Although the country must cope with the worst crisis ever suffered reforms are not as many as expected. The congress aproved some modest changes intended to make the party more democratic in its inner working and more representative, such as the direct election of the National Assembly members. The sole concession made to free markets was to allow small tradesmen to work on their own account.
Directiva 92/57/CEE del consejo, relativa a las disposiciones mínimas de seguridad y de salud que deben aplicarse en las obras de construcción temporales o móviles
Anduiza Arriola, Rafael
Informes de la Construccion , 1993,
Abstract:
La nueva directiva europea sobre seguridad y salud en las obras y el modelo espa ol
Anduiza Arriola, Rafael
Informes de la Construccion , 1993,
Abstract: Critical analysis of the The European Economic Community Ordinance on Labour Safety and Health in Construction works in comparison with the Spanish Ordinance. Análisis crítico de la Normativa de la Comunidad Económica Europea sobre seguridad y salud laboral, en obras de construcción, en comparación con la Normativa espa ola.
Internet Use and the Political Knowledge Gap in Spain
Anduiza, Eva,Gallego, Aina,Jorba, Laia
Revista Internacional de Sociologia , 2012,
Abstract: Media availability and fragmentation and the resulting possibilities of content selection have risen dramatically with the expansion of new digital media. Previous research has found that this may increase knowledge gaps among citizens with different resources and motivations. This article analyses how Internet use affects political knowledge gaps due to education and to political interest in Spain. As expected, frequent Internet users are more knowledgeable about politics than non-users. Furthermore, Internet use increases knowledge more for the highly educated than for citizens with lower levels of education. Thus, the political knowledge gap related to education seems to be growing with the introduction of new media. However, the knowledge gap between citizens with high and low levels of political interest is smaller for frequent Internet users than for non-users. These findings provide a complex picture and partially contradict the pessimistic theory about the impact of increasing media choice on political knowledge. La disponibilidad y fragmentación de medios de comunicación y las posibilidades de elegir contenidos han aumentado en gran medida a raíz de la expansión de los medios digitales. éstos pueden, según investigaciones anteriores, incrementar las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento entre ciudadanos con distintas características. En este artículo se analiza cómo el uso de Internet afecta a las diferencias en el conocimiento político según el nivel educativo y el interés por la política en Espa a. Los usuarios frecuentes de Internet saben más sobre política que los no usuarios, como era de esperar. Además, el uso de Internet incrementa el conocimiento político de manera más intensa para los usuarios con niveles educativos más elevados. Por tanto, parece que las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento pueden estar creciendo con la expansión de los medios digitales. Sin embargo, las diferencias en el nivel de conocimiento de los más y menos interesados en política son menos pronunciadas entre los que usan Internet frecuentemente. Los resultados ofrecen una imagen compleja y matizan las teorías pesimistas sobre el impacto de la creciente posibilidad de elección de contenidos en los medios sobre el conocimiento político.
La exposición a información política a través de internet
Anduiza, Eva,Cristancho, Camilo,Cantijoch, Marta
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2012, DOI: 10.3989/arbor.2012.756n4004
Abstract: This paper analyses online exposure to political information, its causes and some of its potential consequences. For this purpose we use survey data representative of the Spanish population gathered in 2007, 2008 and 2009. First we describe the extent to which Spanish citizens actively search for political information online or receive emails with political content. Secondly, we analyse which individual characteristics (socio-demographic variables, political attitudes and traditional media exposure) explain online exposure to political information. Thirdly, we study to what extent this variable affects political discussion and voter turnout in two election campaigns. Our findings show that only a very small portion of the population in Spain follows online news, and that socioeconomic resources and motivations are significant factors. The impact of this exposure is limited and has a bigger impact on political debate than voting. En este artículo se analiza la exposición a información política a través de Internet, sus condicionantes y algunas de sus potenciales consecuencias. Para ello se utilizan datos procedentes de encuestas representativas de la población espa ola recogidos en 2007, 2008 y 2009. En primer lugar se describe en qué medida los ciudadanos espa oles buscan activamente información política online o reciben correos electrónicos con contenido político. En segundo lugar se analiza qué características individuales (variables sociodemográficas, actitudes políticas y consumo de medios tradicionales) explican la exposición a información política online. En tercer lugar se estudian las consecuencias que ésta puede tener para la discusión política y la participación electoral en el contexto de dos campa as electorales. Los resultados permiten concluir que el seguimiento de la información política online es aún muy reducido en Espa a y que ésta se ve condicionada tanto por los recursos socioeconómicos como por las motivaciones políticas. El efecto de esta exposición es limitado y más relevante para la discusión sobre política que para el voto.
Risk factors and correlates for anemia in HIV treatment-na?ve infected patients: a cross-sectional analytical study
José A Mata-Marín, Jesús E Gaytán-Martínez, Rosa E Martínez-Martínez, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza, José L Fuentes-Allen, Moisés Casarrubias-Ramirez
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-230
Abstract: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in which HIV treatment-na?ve infected patients with anemia were compared with a control group of HIV patients without anemia. The interrelationship between risk factors and anemia was determined. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, to adjust for the effects of potential confounders and we used a logistic regression model. Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained to calculate the correlation between risk factors and hemoglobin.We enrolled 54 men and 9 women. Anemia was found in 13 patients; prevalence .20 (CI 95% 0.12-0.32). Severe anemia was found in only one patient (1.5%). Only CD4+ Cells Count <200 cells/mm3 was associated with increased risk of anemia in the multivariate analysis. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between WBC and hemoglobin (r = 0.49, P < 0.001) and between CD4+ cell count and hemoglobin (r = 0.595, P < 0.001) and a moderately strong, negative correlation between HIV RNA viral load and hemoglobin (r = - 0.433, P < 0.001).Anemia is a common manifestation in the Mexican population without antiretroviral therapy. In HIV na?ve patients a CD4+ Cell Count < 200 cells/mm3 was associated with an increased risk of anemia. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin and CD4+ cell count.The Hematologic manifestations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are a well-recognized complication of the disease and may be clinically important in many patients [1,2]. An obvious cause of anemia in patients with HIV infection is blood loss. Other than blood loss, the physiopathology of HIV-associated anemia may involve three basic mechanisms: decreased RBC (Red Blood Cell) production, increased RBC destruction, and ineffective RBC production [3,4].Although HIV associated anemia is multifactorial, the principal factors are infiltration of the bone marrow by neoplasm or infection, use of myelosuppressive medications such as zidovudine, HIV infection itself
Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study
José Mata-Marín, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez, Bernardo Grados-Chavarría, José Fuentes-Allen, Carla Arroyo-Anduiza, Alfredo Alfaro-Mejía
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-181
Abstract: We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients.HIV-AIDS is one of the main causes of mortality over the world; during the last decade the amount of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients has increased dramatically worldwide [1-3].In HIV infected patients, the increase in hepatic enzymes could be secondary to multiple factors such as alcoholism, lipid lowering drugs, co-infection with hepatitis viruses, or hereditary diseases; in addition, it has been proposed that HIV causes a direct damage over hepatic cells [4-9]. Many factors are associated with hepatic damage: antiretroviral treatment, co-infections with hepatitis B or C virus, opportunistic infections as citomegalovirus, mycobacterium, leishmaniasis, or tumors (lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma), cholangitis associated to parasites (cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis) and toxicity related with non antiretroviral drugs (trimetoprim and other antibiotics)[10].Abnormalities in liver functi
APRI as a predictor of early viral response in chronic hepatitis C patients
José A Mata-Marín, José L Fuentes-Allen, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez, Bulmaro Manjarrez-Téllez, Alberto Chaparro-Sánchez, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) as a predictive factor of early viral response in chronic hepatitis C naive patients.METHODS: We performed an ambispective case-control study. We enrolled chronic hepatitis C naive patients who were evaluated to start therapy with PEGylated interferon α-2b (1.5 μg/kg per week) and ribavirin (> 75 kg: 1200 mg and < 75 kg: 1000 mg). Patients were allocated into two groups, group 1: Hepatitis C patients with early viral response (EVR), group 2: Patients without EVR. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the relationship between each risk factor and the EVR in both groups.RESULTS: During the study, 80 patients were analyzed, 45 retrospectively and 35 prospectively. The mean ± SD age of our subjects was 42.9 ± 12 years; weight 70 kg (± 11.19), AST 64.6 IU/mL (± 48.74), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 76.3 IU/mL (± 63.08) and platelets 209 000 mill/mm3 (± 84 429). Fifty-five (68.8%) were genotype 1 and 25 (31.3%) were genotype 2 or 3; the mean hepatitis C virus RNA viral load was 2 269 061 IU/mL (± 7 220 266). In the univariate analysis, APRI was not associated with EVR [OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.229-1.655, P = 0.33)], and the absence of EVR was only associated with genotype 1 [OR 0.28 (95% CI 0.08-0.94, P = 0.034)]. After adjustment in a logistic regression model, genotype 1 remains significant.CONCLUSION: APRI was not a predictor of EVR in chronic hepatitis C; Genotype 1 was the only predictive factor associated with the absence of EVR in our patients.
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