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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216009 matches for " Andrew P. Badrock "
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Mutant Human FUS Is Ubiquitously Mislocalized and Generates Persistent Stress Granules in Primary Cultured Transgenic Zebrafish Cells
Jamie Rae Acosta, Claire Goldsbury, Claire Winnick, Andrew P. Badrock, Stuart T. Fraser, Angela S. Laird, Thomas E. Hall, Emily K. Don, Jennifer A. Fifita, Ian P. Blair, Garth A. Nicholson, Nicholas J. Cole
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090572
Abstract: FUS mutations can occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a neurodegenerative disease with cytoplasmic FUS inclusion bodies in motor neurons. To investigate FUS pathology, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP-tagged wild-type or fALS (R521C) human FUS. Cell cultures were made from these zebrafish and the subcellular localization of human FUS and the generation of stress granule (SG) inclusions examined in different cell types, including differentiated motor neurons. We demonstrate that mutant FUS is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytosol to a similar extent in motor neurons and all other cell types. Both wild-type and R521C FUS localized to SGs in zebrafish cells, demonstrating an intrinsic ability of human FUS to accumulate in SGs irrespective of the presence of disease-associated mutations or specific cell type. However, elevation in relative cytosolic to nuclear FUS by the R521C mutation led to a significant increase in SG assembly and persistence within a sub population of vulnerable cells, although these cells were not selectively motor neurons.
Autophagy Induction Is a Tor- and Tp53-Independent Cell Survival Response in a Zebrafish Model of Disrupted Ribosome Biogenesis
Yeliz Boglev,Andrew P. Badrock,Andrew J. Trotter,Qian Du,Elsbeth J. Richardson,Adam C. Parslow,Sebastian J. Markmiller,Nathan E. Hall,Tanya A. de Jong-Curtain,Annie Y. Ng,Heather Verkade,Elke A. Ober,Holly A. Field,Donghun Shin,Chong H. Shin,Katherine M. Hannan,Ross D. Hannan,Richard B. Pearson,Seok-Hyung Kim,Kevin C. Ess,Graham J. Lieschke,Didier Y. R. Stainier,Joan K. Heath
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003279
Abstract: Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (ttis450), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In ttis450, the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in ttis450 larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in ttis450 larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death.
An Extension of Some Results Due to Cox and Leland  [PDF]
Andrew P. Leung, Wen Shi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34043
Abstract:

We investigate an optimal portfolio allocation problem between a risky and a risk-free asset, as in [1]. They obtained explicit conditions for path-independence and optimality of allocation strategies when the price of the risky asset follows a geometric Brownian motion with constant asset characteristics. This paper analyzes and extends their results for dynamic investment strategies by allowing for non-constant returns and volatility. We adopt a continuous-time approach and appeal to well established results in stochastic calculus for doing so.

Positive Well-Being and Work-Life Balance among UK Railway Staff  [PDF]
Jialin Fan, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56001
Abstract:
Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive personality was associated with positive well-being both at work and outside of work.
The Mediating Effect of Fatigue on Work-Life Balance and Positive Well-Being in Railway Staff  [PDF]
Jialin Fan, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.66001
Abstract:
Both fatigue and negative work-life balance can be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences, while fatigue is associated with reduced positive well-being. This paper reports a study that investigated the mediation effect of fatigue between those stressors and well-being outcomes among UK railway staff. A large number of significant mediation effects of fatigue were found in this study, and as a result, the process by which job demands, job support and control influence major positive well-being outcomes can be partially explained by fatigue.
Nationality, Ethnicity and the Well-Being Process in Occupational Samples  [PDF]
Omolaso Omosehin, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75011
Abstract:
Well-being has been defined as optimal functioning and experience. In order to get a balanced picture of an individual’s well-being, approaches that integrate both its positive and negative aspects have been suggested. One framework that allows for this integrated approach to well-being is the Demands-Resources Individual Effects (DRIVE) model. The current study was a cross-cultural study of 316 adults in paid employment from three distinct cultural backgrounds: White British, Ethnic Minorities (in the United Kingdom) and Nigerian. The aims of the study were to confirm the established effects of the DRIVE model and to investigate if cultural/ethnic background accounted for any differences in well-being across the three groups. The findings show that the established effects were observed in all groups. This suggests that cultural/ethnic background does not have much effect on well-being outcomes when controlling for established psychosocial predictors such as personality, job characteristics, social support and negative coping. These results support an objective well-being process rather than subjective well-being, which may be defined by a person’s culture.
Using Single-Item Measures to Examine the Relationships between Work, Personality, and Well-Being in the Workplace  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76078
Abstract:

Measuring the well-being of employees through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis, the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require very brief scales.

Modeling Freight Truck Trips in Birmingham Using Tour-Based Approach  [PDF]
Ehsan Doustmohammadi, Virginia P. Sisiopiku, Andrew Sullivan
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2016.65035
Abstract: This research study explores the use of an innovative freight tour-based approach to model truck trips as an alternative to the conventional trip-based approach. The tour-based approach is more realistic as it captures the intermediate stops of each truck and reflects the implications of those stops on vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The paper describes the truck tour-based model concept, and presents the framework of a truck tour-based travel demand forecasting approach. As a case study, Global Positioning System (GPS) truck data are used to determine origin, destination, and truck stops for trucks moving within the Birmingham, Alabama region. Such information is then utilized to model truck movements within the study region as individual truck tours. The tour-based model is ran, and the resulting performance measures are contrasted to those obtained from the conventional trip-based planning model used by the Regional Planning Commission of Greater Birmingham (RPCGB). This case study demonstrates the feasibility of using a tour-based freight demand forecasting model as an alternative to the conventional 4-step process currently used to estimate truck trips in the Birmingham region. The results and lessons learned from the Birmingham case study are expected to improve truck movement modeling practices in the region and advance the accuracy of truck travel demand forecasting models at other locations in the future.
Stress and Well-Being of University Staff: An Investigation Using the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) Model and Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ)  [PDF]
Gary Williams, Kai Thomas, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.812124
Abstract: Research suggests that university staff have high stress levels but less is known about the well-being of this group. The present study used an adapted version of the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model to investigate these topics. It also used the Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ) which consists of single items derived from longer scales. One hundred and twenty university staff participated in an online survey. The single items had good concurrent validity and estimated reliability. Factor analyses showed that single items and the longer scales loaded on the same factor. Work characteristics could be sub-divided into two factors (resources and demands), as could personality (positive personality and openness/agreeable/conscientious), coping (positive and negative coping) and outcomes (positive well-being and negative outcomes such as stress and anxiety). Results from regressions showed that positive well-being was predicted by positive personality and positive coping. Negative outcomes were predicted by job demands and negative coping. Overall, the study has demonstrated the utility of the adapted DRIVE model and shown that a short single item measuring instrument can quickly capture a wide range of job and psychosocial characteristics.
Spatiotemporal Analysis and Predictive Modeling of Rabies in Tennessee  [PDF]
Nyssa Hunt, Andrew Carroll, Thomas P. Wilson
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.101004
Abstract: Among viruses, Rhabdovirus, more commonly known as rabies, is largely monitored throughout landscapes because of its known risks and deadliness. While vaccination and education efforts have been enforced and apparently successful in the past decades, many questions still exist in some regions about the virus’s spread and potential. In the United States, the state of Tennessee’s Department of Health has documented rabies reports from the 1940s-2010s, but not as many spatial analyses have been performed to further map and assess rabid animals in this variable landscape. Our study proposed to create distribution and density models to give an idea of the types of locations rabid animals have consistently been found. A predictive model was also created using software that simulated landscape fragmentation and habitat connectivity, to provide further insight for potential disease spread. Our results display that Tennessee’s central region, which is a more homogenous landscape, tended to host a lot of rabid animals and maintained a rather consistent distribution throughout the years. The predictive model was simulated on a less homogenous landscape and displayed that spread potential can be affected by natural barriers. Each of these spatial results could be of service in future disease monitoring, hopefully for the benefit of wildlife and people alike.
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