Abstract:
Todos los economistas deberían saber “qué sucedió” durante la crisis financiera de 2007-2009. Seleccionamos y resumimos 16 documentos, incluidos artículos académicos e informes de agencias reguladoras e internacionales. Esta lista de lecturas cubre los mecanismos y hechos claves del aumento del riesgo, los pánicos en los mercados de deuda de corto plazo, las reacciones de política y los efectos reales de la crisis financiera.

Abstract:
This document is based on a question asked in the Dark Side of the Universe 2010 conference in Leon, Mexico, when a researcher from India asked the author about how to obtain a stability analysis of massive gravitons. The answer to this question involves an extension of the usual Pauli_Fiertz Langrangian as written by Ortin, with non- zero graviton mass contributing to a relationship between the trace of a revised GR stress-energy tensor (assuming non- zero graviton mass), and the trace of a revised symmetric tensor times a tiny mass for a 4 dimensional graviton. The resulting analysis makes use of Visser’s treatment of a stress en-ergy tensor, with experimental applications discussed in the resulting analysis. If the square of frequency of a massive graviton is real valued and greater than zero, stability can be possibly confirmed experimentally.

Abstract:
We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity is a relevant consideration near the Planck scale. Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, , of the universe when triggered by changes in spacetime geometry; i.e. what role would an increase in degrees of freedom have in setting the conditions during , so that the result of these conditions can be observed and analyzed by a gravitational detector. The micro physics interaction is due to the formation of a pre Planckian to Planckian space time transition in spatial dimensions at and near the Planck dimensional values, i.e. 10–33 centimeters in spatial dimensions. This transition would be abrupt and arising in micro physics regimes of space time.

Abstract:
We present what is relevant to squeezed states of initial space time and how that affects both the composition of relic GW, and also gravitons. A side issue to consider is if gravitons can be configured as semi classical "particles", which is akin to the Pilot model of Quantum Mechanics as embedded in a larger non linear "deterministic" background.

Abstract:
We introduce a criterion as to the range of HFGW generated by early universe conditions. The 1 to 10 Giga Hertz range is constructed initially starting with what Grupen writes as far as what to expect of GW frequencies which can be detected assuming a sensitivity of 7×h~10^{-27} . From there we examine the implications of an earlier Hubble parameter at the start of inflation, and a phase transition treatment of pre to post Planckian inflation physics via use of inflatons. We close with an analysis of how gravitational constant G may vary with time, the tie in with the NEC condition and how to select a range of relic GW frequencies. The gravitational frequencies in turn may enable resolving a mis match between the datum that the entropy of the center of the galaxy black hole is greater than the entropy of the present four dimensional universe as we can infer and measure.

Abstract:
One element of the NPM-inspired reforms is the adoption of result-based management in the Tanzanian public sector. This paper examines the implementation of this type of reform by focusing on executive agencies. Executive agencies were especially created to be result-oriented public organizations. Our empirical question is whether or not and to what extent the management of executive agencies has shifted to result-based approach as promised by NPM-reform doctrine. Our findings indicate that result-based approach has only been partially implemented in the Tanzanian public sector. There is less emphasis on managing for results and management processes have continued to be predominantly based on inputs and processes.

Abstract:
What is the physical nature of gravitinos? As asked before, this question was the template of how to introduce Machian Physics as a way to link gravitinos in the electro weak era and gravitons as of the present. What we wish to do now is to ask how a flaw in the Higgs equation as brought up by Comay shows a branch off from orthodox quantum physics, leading to, with the Machs principle application done earlier a way to embed the beginning of the universe as a semi classical superstructure of which Quantum Mechanics is a subset of. We argue that this will necessitate a review of the Higgs equation of state for reasons stated in the manuscript. We also finally review a proprosal for another form of mass formation mechanism as a replacement for the Higgs mass as introduced by Glinka and Beckwith, 2012, with commentary as to how suitable it may be to get a gravitino mass in fidelity to the Machian proposal introduced by Beckwith previously, to get linkage between electroweak era gravitinos and present day gravitons.

Abstract:
When initial radius R_{initial 0 if Stoica actually derived Einstein equations in a formalism which remove the big bang singularity pathology, then the reason for Planck length no longer holds. The implications of Rinitial 0 are the first part of this manuscript. Then the resolution is alluded to by work from Muller and Lousto, as to implications of entanglement entropy. We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a steadily shrinking scale factor, due to work from Muller and Lousto, and show that there are consequences due to initial entanged Sentropy=0.3rH2/a2 for a time dependent horizon radius rH in cosmology, with for flat space conditions rH= for conformal time. In the case of a curved, but not flat space version of entropy, we look at vacuum energy as proportional to the inverse of scale factor squared times the inverse of initial entropy, effectively when there is no initial time in line with ~H2/G H≈a-1. The consequences for this initial entropy being entangled are elaborated in this manuscript. No matter how small the length gets, Sentropy if it is entanglement entropy, will not go to zero. The requirement is that the smallest length of time, t, re scaled does not go to zero. Even if the length goes to zero. This preserves a minimum non zero vacuum energy, and in doing so keep the bits, for computational bits cosmological evolution even if Rinitial 0.}

Abstract:
Recently, the author read the Alicki-Van Ryn test as to behavior of photons in a test of violations of classicality. The same thing is propoosed via use of a spin two graviton, using typical spin 2 matrices. While the technology currently does not exist to perform such an analysis yet, the same sort of thought experiment is proposed in a way to allow for a first principle test of the either classical or quantum foundations of gravity. The reason for the present manuscript topic is due to a specific argument presented in a prior document as to how h is formed from semiclassical reasoning. We referred to a procedure as to how to use Maxwell’s equations involving a closed boundary regime, in the boundary re- gime between Octonionic Geometry and quantum flat space. Conceivably, a similar argument could be made forgravi- tons, pending further investigations. Also the anlysis of if gravitons are constructed by a similar semiclassical argument is pending if gravitons as by the Alicki-Van Ryn test result in semiclassical and matrix observable eigenvalue behavior. This paper also indirectly raises the question of if Baysian statistics would be the optimal way to differentiate between and matrix observable eigenvalue behavior for reasons brought up in the conclusion.

Abstract:
With the advent in the UK of a new Labour government in 1997 and the publication of the Macpherson report in 1999, public debate over race and racism was reactivated after a long period when such concerns had remained dormant. In this article, I shall draw upon an ethnographic study of one university in the UK over a ten year period (Pilkington, 2011a). Here I shall focus on the early part of that period, predominantly 1999-2003 when arguably issues relating to race and racism were at their height. I examine how Midshire University responded in turn to the Commission for Racial Equality’s (CRE’s) leadership challenge; the government’s strategies for higher education relating to widening participation and equal opportunities; and the race relations legislation. The story is not a happy one, with the institution constantly subsuming race under a more general agenda and in the process failing to address the specificities of race. Midshire University is unlikely to be the only university to do this. Universities in UK are typically characterised by the “sheer weight of whiteness” which blinds senior managers and academics to racial inequalities in their midst.