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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 421396 matches for " Andrew M. Smith "
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Using Single-Item Measures to Examine the Relationships between Work, Personality, and Well-Being in the Workplace  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76078

Measuring the well-being of employees through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis, the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require very brief scales.

The Student Well-Being Process Questionnaire (Student WPQ)  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Hannah Pendlebury, Kai Thomas, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.811115
Abstract: Recent research has used short questionnaires based on single item versions of psychosocial concepts to assess well-being. This has largely been confined to occupational samples and the present article describes the extension of this process to university students. The Student Well-being Process Questionnaire (Student WPQ) was used to examine predictors of positive well-being, negative mental health and cognitive function. An online survey was used with 478 first and second year undergraduates as participants. Regression analyses showed that positive well-being (e.g. happiness, positive affect and life satisfaction) was predicted by positive personality (high optimism, self-esteem and self-efficacy), high social support and low stressors and low negative coping scores. Negative outcomes (e.g. perceived stress, anxiety and depression) were predicted by high stressor, coping and conscientiousness scores, and low positive personality and social support scores. Cognitive problems were predicted by high stressor and negative coping scores and low positive personality scores. A MANOVA showed that there were no significant interactions between the predictor variables. The best predictor of all outcomes was a combined score including all predictor variables. Overall, the present study shows that the Student WPQ can provide useful information on predictors of different aspects of well-being. Future research can include additional potential predictors and other outcomes to determine whether other factors are significant when established predictors are adjusted for.
An International Survey of the Wellbeing of Employees in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry  [PDF]
Andrew Smith, Hugo Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.81010
Abstract: The project described in this article was part of a larger program on wellbeing at work and involved an international survey of staff in the business process outsourcing industry. The survey used the Smith Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWELL) and the results showed that this measured both positive and negative aspects of wellbeing. The sample reported high levels of stress which was predicted by job demands and lack of control and support. High levels of control/support were associated with greater job satisfaction.
Recombinant Spider Silks—Biopolymers with Potential for Future Applications
Martin Humenik,Andrew M. Smith,Thomas Scheibel
Polymers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/polym3010640
Abstract: Nature has evolved a range of materials that compete with man-made materials in physical properties; one of these is spider silk. Silk is a fibrous material that exhibits extremely high strength and toughness with regard to its low density. In this review we discuss the molecular structure of spider silk and how this understanding has allowed the development of recombinant silk proteins that mimic the properties of natural spider silks. Additionally, we will explore the material morphologies and the applications of these proteins. Finally, we will look at attempts to combine the silk structure with chemical polymers and how the structure of silk has inspired the engineering of novel polymers.
A wavelet-based super-resolution method for multi-slice MRI  [PDF]
Rafiqul Islam, Andrew J. Lambert, Mark R. Pickering, Jennie M. Scarvell, Paul N. Smith
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A109

In multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the resolution in the slice direction is usually reduced to allow faster acquisition times and to reduce the amount of noise in each 2D slice. To address this issue, a number of super resolution (SR) methods have been proposed to improve the resolution of 3D MRI volumes. Most of the methods involve the use of prior models of the MRI data as regularization terms in an ill-conditioned inverse problem. The use of user-defined parameters produces better results for these approaches but an inappropriate choice may reduce the overall performance of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a wavelet domain SR method which uses a Gaussian scale mixture (GSM) model in a sparseness constraint to regularize the ill-posed SR inverse problem. The proposed approach also makes use of an extension of the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform to provide the ability to analyze the wavelet coefficients with sub-level precision. Our results show that the 3D MRI volumes reconstructed using this approach have quality superior to volumes produced by the best previously proposed approaches.

Revision of the genus Chiasognathus Stephens of southern South America with the description of a new species (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae, Chiasognathini)
M.J. Paulsen,Andrew Smith
ZooKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.43.397
Abstract: The genus Chiasognathus Stephens is revised and now consists of seven species, all of which are endemic to southern South America. The genus-level names Bomansodus Chalumeau & Brochier, Carmeniella Molino-Olmedo, and Ramireziella Molino-Olmedo are all confirmed to be synonyms of Chiasognathus. A new species of Chiasognathus is described from the Biobio Region of Chile. The species Chiasognathus mniszechii Thomson is removed from synonymy and is a valid species with Chiasognathus schoenemanni Kriesche as its junior synonym. In order to promote nomenclatural stability, a lectotype is designated for the name Chiasognathus reichei Thomson, and a neotype is designated for the name Chiasognathus pygmaeus Dallas.
The Role of the Innate Immune System in Granulomatous Disorders
Helen J. Petersen,Andrew M. Smith
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00120
Abstract: The dynamic structure of the granuloma serves to protect the body from microbiological challenge. This organized aggregate of immune cells seeks to contain this challenge and protect against dissemination, giving host immune cells a chance to eradicate the threat. A number of systemic diseases are characterized by this specialized inflammatory process and granulomas have been shown to develop at multiple body sites and in various tissues. Central to this process is the macrophage and the arms of the innate immune response. This review seeks to explore how the innate immune response drives this inflammatory process in a contrast of diseases, particularly those with a component of immunodeficiency. By understanding the genes and inflammatory mechanisms behind this specialized immune response, will guide research in the development of novel therapeutics to combat granulomatous diseases.
A Short Growing Season Negatively Affects Progeny Vigor in Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica)  [PDF]
Lynn M. Ingegneri, Michael P. Quinn, Andrew G. Hulting, Carol A. Mallory-Smith
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.63032
Abstract: Seed production and percent germination in jointed goatgrass were negatively affected by a shorter vernalization period in field studies conducted at Oregon State University. Our objective was to determine if a shorter growing season experienced by a maternal jointed goatgrass plant similarly affected seedling vigor in the progeny. Seed mass, percent germination, emergence, seedling height and biomass, including roots, were recorded or evaluated on progeny that were produced from three jointed goatgrass populations grown under a long or short growing season in a common garden experiment in eastern Oregon, an area where jointed goatgrass is known to commonly infest natural resources, including winter wheat. Seeds produced under a shorter growing season weighed less, were slower to germinate, and displayed lower percent germination compared with seeds produced under a long growing season. Seedlings from a short growing season were slower to emerge, and produced less shoot biomass compared to seedlings produced under a long growing season. Seedling roots and shoots were shorter when seeds were produced under a short growing season. A shorter growing season negatively affected jointed goatgrass seedling vigor. If resources for jointed goatgrass management are limited, strategies should focus on controlling plants that emerge in the fall, because they have the potential to produce more vigorous seedlings compared to plants that emerge in late winter or early spring.
Multidefender Security Games
Jian Lou,Andrew M. Smith,Yevgeniy Vorobeychik
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Stackelberg security game models and associated computational tools have seen deployment in a number of high-consequence security settings, such as LAX canine patrols and Federal Air Marshal Service. These models focus on isolated systems with only one defender, despite being part of a more complex system with multiple players. Furthermore, many real systems such as transportation networks and the power grid exhibit interdependencies between targets and, consequently, between decision makers jointly charged with protecting them. To understand such multidefender strategic interactions present in security, we investigate game theoretic models of security games with multiple defenders. Unlike most prior analysis, we focus on the situations in which each defender must protect multiple targets, so that even a single defender's best response decision is, in general, highly non-trivial. We start with an analytical investigation of multidefender security games with independent targets, offering an equilibrium and price-of-anarchy analysis of three models with increasing generality. In all models, we find that defenders have the incentive to over-protect targets, at times significantly. Additionally, in the simpler models, we find that the price of anarchy is unbounded, linearly increasing both in the number of defenders and the number of targets per defender. Considering interdependencies among targets, we develop a novel mixed-integer linear programming formulation to compute a defender's best response, and make use of this formulation in approximating Nash equilibria of the game. We apply this approach towards computational strategic analysis of several models of networks representing interdependencies, including real-world power networks. Our analysis shows how network structure and the probability of failure spread determine the propensity of defenders to over- or under-invest in security.
Word learning under infinite uncertainty
Richard A. Blythe,Andrew D. M. Smith,Kenny Smith
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.
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