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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210543 matches for " Andrew D. Williams "
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Pregnancy risk markers in Tourette syndrome: A systematic review  [PDF]
Larry Burd, James Miles, Chun-Zi Peng, Jacob Kerbeshian, Andrew D. Williams
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21002
Abstract: The published literature on the prevalence of pregnancy risk markers in patients with Tourette Syndrome (TS) was reviewed. PubMed was searched for papers describing studies of pregnancy risk markers in TS. All years and languages were searched, and the reference sections of each paper were also reviewed for additional citations. We identified 20 studies reporting on pregnancy risk markers in 1588 subjects with TS. Six studies used comparison populations and two utilized twins for comparisons. Three risk markers (decreased birth weight, father’s age, and number of prior terminations of pregnancy) were identified as possible risk markers for TS. To date, no pregnancy risk marker has been demonstrated to increase risk for development of TS, to increase syndromal severity, rates of comorbidity, or to increase duration of TS.
Effectiveness of a Novel Low Cost Intervention to Reduce Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in the Congo  [PDF]
Andrew D. Williams, Yannick Nkombo, Gery Nkodia, Gary Leonardson, Kathryn Martsolf, Larry Burd
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.41012
Abstract:

Objective: Determine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. Methods: We utilized a screening tool validated in the Congo to identify women who were drinking during pregnancy. The intervention was implemented by prenatal care providers comparing 162 women receiving the intervention with 58 (controls) who did not. The study endpoints were proportion of women who quit drinking, drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any day, and number of binge episodes per week. Results: In the control group 36% of the women quit drinking compared to 54% in the intervention group (Chi-square 5.61; p = 0.02). The number of drinking days per week for the controls decreased by 50.1% compared to 68% for the intervention group (p = 0.008); drinks per drinking day for the controls decreased by 37% compared to 60.1% for the intervention group (p = 0.001); and most drinks on any occasion in the controls decreased by 38% compared to 61% for the intervention group (p = 0.004). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a low cost in-office intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. At $1.50 per beer, the reduction in drinks per week would more than pay for the cost of the intervention. In addition to efforts to reduce alcohol use prior to pregnancy in the Congo, providers can now offer an evidence based intervention to reduce exposure for women who continue to drink during pregnancy.

The Relationship of Sleep with Temperature and Metabolic Rate in a Hibernating Primate
Andrew D. Krystal, Bobby Schopler, Susanne Kobbe, Cathy Williams, Hajanirina Rakatondrainibe, Anne D. Yoder, Peter Klopfer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069914
Abstract: Study Objectives It has long been suspected that sleep is important for regulating body temperature and metabolic-rate. Hibernation, a state of acute hypothermia and reduced metabolic-rate, offers a promising system for investigating those relationships. Prior studies in hibernating ground squirrels report that, although sleep occurs during hibernation, it manifests only as non-REM sleep, and only at relatively high temperatures. In our study, we report data on sleep during hibernation in a lemuriform primate, Cheirogaleus medius. As the only primate known to experience prolonged periods of hibernation and as an inhabitant of more temperate climates than ground squirrels, this animal serves as an alternative model for exploring sleep temperature/metabolism relationships that may be uniquely relevant to understanding human physiology. Measurements and Results We find that during hibernation, non-REM sleep is absent in Cheirogaleus. Rather, periods of REM sleep occur during periods of relatively high ambient temperature, a pattern opposite of that observed in ground squirrels. Like ground squirrels, however, EEG is marked by ultra-low voltage activity at relatively low metabolic-rates. Conclusions These findings confirm a sleep-temperature/metabolism link, though they also suggest that the relationship of sleep stage with temperature/metabolism is flexible and may differ across species or mammalian orders. The absence of non-REM sleep suggests that during hibernation in Cheirogaleus, like in the ground squirrel, the otherwise universal non-REM sleep homeostatic response is greatly curtailed or absent. Lastly, ultra-low voltage EEG appears to be a cross-species marker for extremely low metabolic-rate, and, as such, may be an attractive target for research on hibernation induction.
Monocytes/macrophages express chemokine receptor CCR9 in rheumatoid arthritis and CCL25 stimulates their differentiation
Caroline Schmutz, Alison Cartwright, Helen Williams, Oliver Haworth, John HH Williams, Andrew Filer, Mike Salmon, Christopher D Buckley, Jim Middleton
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/ar3120
Abstract: CCR9 expression on PB monocytes/macrophages was analysed by flow cytometry and in synovium by immunofluorescence. Chemokine receptor CCR9 mRNA expression was examined in RA and non-RA synovium, monocytes/macrophages from PB and synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients and PB of healthy donors using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Monocyte differentiation and chemotaxis to chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25)/TECK were used to study CCR9 function.CCR9 was expressed by PB monocytes/macrophages in RA and healthy donors, and increased in RA. In RA and non-RA synovia, CCR9 co-localised with cluster of differentiation 14+ (CD14+) and cluster of differentiation 68+ (CD68+) macrophages, and was more abundant in RA synovium. CCR9 mRNA was detected in the synovia of all RA patients and in some non-RA controls, and monocytes/macrophages from PB and SF of RA and healthy controls. CCL25 was detected in RA and non-RA synovia where it co-localised with CD14+ and CD68+ cells. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) increased CCR9 expression on human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 monocytic cells. CCL25 induced a stronger monocyte differentiation in RA compared to healthy donors. CCL25 induced significant chemotaxis of PB monocytes but not consistently among individuals.CCR9 expression by monocytes is increased in RA. CCL25 may be involved in the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages particularly in RA.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in the accumulation of macrophages, T cells and B cells within the synovium. The accumulation of these cells is involved in the development of inflammation, joint destruction and pain [1]. Monocytes migrate from the blood across the walls of synovial blood vessels and differentiate into macrophages. The clinical importance of monocytes/macrophages is revealed by the correlation between their number, disease activity and radiographic progression [2-4] and by the beneficial effect of therapi
Impact of VIP and cAMP on the regulation of TNF-α and IL-10 production: implications for rheumatoid arthritis
Andrew D Foey, Sarah Field, Salman Ahmed, Abhilash Jain, Marc Feldmann, Fionula M Brennan, Richard Williams
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/ar999
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by the dysregulated expression of many proinflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), with increased yet insufficient production of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10 [1]. The validation of TNF-α as a therapeutic target in RA has encouraged the investigation of signalling pathways regulating its production by cells relevant to the pathophysiology of this disease. One pathway known to downregulate proinflammatory TNF-α production and, consequently, upregulate the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is that elicited by the second messenger cAMP [2,3]. This pathway may therefore represent a good therapeutic target due to its opposing effects on TNF-α and IL-10. Previously, we and others demonstrated that rolipram, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV inhibitor, reduced the clinical and histological severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) [4,5]. These studies demonstrated the potential for the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in treatment of autoimmune diseases such as RA.Another stimulator of the cAMP/PKA pathway whose principle immunomodulatory functions are anti-inflammatory is the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP is a 28-aminoacid neuropeptide belonging to the glucagon/secretin family, found in the nervous system and in the immune system, where it is detected in a variety of cell types including mast cells, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells. The effects of VIP are transduced via three known receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1, all of which are coupled to adenylate cyclase via heterotrimeric G proteins. In vivo, VIP has a therapeutic effect in the CIA mouse model [6,7] and protects from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock by suppression of TNF-α [8,9] and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation [10]. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that VIP inhibits the production of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12 [11,12], chemokines [13,14], and nitric oxide (NO) [1
The effect of yoga on women with secondary arm lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment
Annette Loudon, Tony Barnett, Neil Piller, Maarten A Immink, Denis Visentin, Andrew D Williams
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-66
Abstract: A randomised controlled pilot trial will be conducted in Hobart and Launceston with a total of 40 women receiving either yoga intervention or current best practice care. Intervention will consist of eight weeks of a weekly teacher-led yoga class with a home-based daily yoga practice delivered by DVD. Primary outcome measures will be the effects of yoga on lymphoedema and its associated symptoms and quality of life. Secondary outcome measures will be range of motion of the arm and thoracic spine, shoulder strength, and weekly and daily physical activity. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, weeks four, eight and a four week follow up at week twelve. Range of motion of the spine, in a self-nominated group, will be measured at baseline, weeks eight and twelve. A further outcome will be the women’s perceptions of the yoga collected by interview at week eight.The results of this trial will provide information on the safety and effectiveness of yoga for women with secondary arm lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment. It will also inform methodology for future, larger trials.ACTRN12611000202965
Intradialytic versus home based exercise training in hemodialysis patients: a randomised controlled trial
Kirsten P Koh, Robert G Fassett, James E Sharman, Jeff S Coombes, Andrew D Williams
BMC Nephrology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-10-2
Abstract: This is a randomised, controlled clinical trial. A total of 72 hemodialysis patients will be randomised to receive either six months of intradialytic exercise training, home-based exercise training or usual care. Intradialytic patients will undergo three training sessions per week on a cycle ergometer and home-based patients will be provided with a walking program to achieve the same weekly physical activity. Primary outcome measures are six-minute walk distance (6 MWD) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). Secondary outcome measures include augmentation index, peripheral and central blood pressures, physical activity and self-reported health. Measures will be made at baseline, three and six months.The results of this study will help determine the efficacy of home-based exercise training in hemodialysis patients. This may assist in developing exercise guidelines specific for these patients.ACTRN12608000247370A number of studies have shown that intradialytic exercise training has positive effects on patients, such as improving cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function and self-reported health [1]. Less work has focussed on the effects of exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in dialysis patients although some evidence suggests improvements in fasting glucose and insulin, an enhancement in the management of hypertension, and a reduction in inflammation [2-5].Cardiovascular pathologies observed in ESKD patients include left ventricular hypertrophy and arterial disease [6]. In addition to the characteristic lesions of atherosclerosis, dialysis patients also experience thickening and fibrosis of the arterial wall in response to pressure and volume overload, loss of elastic fibres and medial fibrosis [7]. Such arterial remodelling, along with medial calcification, causes arteries to stiffen, thereby exacerbating left ventricular dysfunction [8]. Indeed, widening of the pulse pressure, the simplest and crudest method of assessing arterial stiffness, has prove
Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals
Matthew B Cooke, Emma Rybalka, Andrew D Williams, Paul J Cribb, Alan Hayes
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-13
Abstract: Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i) Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7); or ii) carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7). Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05.The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher) and isometric (21% higher) knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84%) after 48 hrs (P < 0.01), 72 hrs (P < 0.001), 96 hrs (P < 0.0001), and 7 days (P < 0.001) recovery in the Cr-supplemented group.The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.Exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury is well understood as the product of unfamiliar or strenuous physical activity, and eccentric (lengthening) contractions under high loads are primarily responsible [1,2]. Eccentric exercise leads to the disruption of the normal muscle ultrastructure and alters sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function which results in an increase in intracellular calcium and subsequent activation of degradative pathways [3]. The trauma created by this type of exercise initiates a myriad of events that lead to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function [1,2]. Therefore, strate
Using Single-Item Measures to Examine the Relationships between Work, Personality, and Well-Being in the Workplace  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76078
Abstract:

Measuring the well-being of employees through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis, the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require very brief scales.

Stress and Well-Being of University Staff: An Investigation Using the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) Model and Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ)  [PDF]
Gary Williams, Kai Thomas, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.812124
Abstract: Research suggests that university staff have high stress levels but less is known about the well-being of this group. The present study used an adapted version of the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model to investigate these topics. It also used the Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ) which consists of single items derived from longer scales. One hundred and twenty university staff participated in an online survey. The single items had good concurrent validity and estimated reliability. Factor analyses showed that single items and the longer scales loaded on the same factor. Work characteristics could be sub-divided into two factors (resources and demands), as could personality (positive personality and openness/agreeable/conscientious), coping (positive and negative coping) and outcomes (positive well-being and negative outcomes such as stress and anxiety). Results from regressions showed that positive well-being was predicted by positive personality and positive coping. Negative outcomes were predicted by job demands and negative coping. Overall, the study has demonstrated the utility of the adapted DRIVE model and shown that a short single item measuring instrument can quickly capture a wide range of job and psychosocial characteristics.
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