Abstract:
This paper contains some results of An.A.Muchnik (1958-2007) reported in his talks at the Kolmogorov seminar (Moscow State Lomonosov University, Math. Department, Logic and Algorithms theory division, March 11, 2003 and April 8, 2003) but not published at that time. These results were stated (without proofs) in the joint talk of Andrej Muchnik and Alexei Semenov at Dagstuhl Seminar 03181, 27.04.2003-03.05.2003. This text was prepared by Alexey Chernov and Alexander Shen in 2008-2009. We consider (in the framework of algorithmic information theory) questions of the following type: construct a message that contains different amounts of information for recipients that have (or do not have) certain a priori information. Assume, for example, that the recipient knows some string $a$, and we want to send her some information that allows her to reconstruct some string $b$ (using $a$). On the other hand, this information alone should not allow the eavesdropper (who does not know $a$) to reconstruct $b$. It is indeed possible (if the strings $a$ and $b$ are not too simple). Then we consider more complicated versions of this question. What if the eavesdropper knows some string $c$? How long should be our message? We provide some conditions that guarantee the existence of a polynomial-size message; we show then that without these conditions this is not always possible.

Abstract:
The Kolmogorov complexity function K can be relativized using any oracle A, and most properties of K remain true for relativized versions. In section 1 we provide an explanation for this observation by giving a game-theoretic interpretation and showing that all "natural" properties are either true for all sufficiently powerful oracles or false for all sufficiently powerful oracles. This result is a simple consequence of Martin's determinacy theorem, but its proof is instructive: it shows how one can prove statements about Kolmogorov complexity by constructing a special game and a winning strategy in this game. This technique is illustrated by several examples (total conditional complexity, bijection complexity, randomness extraction, contrasting plain and prefix complexities).

Abstract:
Randomness in the sense of Martin-L\"of can be defined in terms of lower semicomputable supermartingales. We show that such a supermartingale cannot be replaced by a pair of supermartingales that bet only on the even bits (the first one) and on the odd bits (the second one) knowing all preceding bits.

Abstract:
Solomonoff's central result on induction is that the posterior of a universal semimeasure M converges rapidly and with probability 1 to the true sequence generating posterior mu, if the latter is computable. Hence, M is eligible as a universal sequence predictor in case of unknown mu. Despite some nearby results and proofs in the literature, the stronger result of convergence for all (Martin-Loef) random sequences remained open. Such a convergence result would be particularly interesting and natural, since randomness can be defined in terms of M itself. We show that there are universal semimeasures M which do not converge for all random sequences, i.e. we give a partial negative answer to the open problem. We also provide a positive answer for some non-universal semimeasures. We define the incomputable measure D as a mixture over all computable measures and the enumerable semimeasure W as a mixture over all enumerable nearly-measures. We show that W converges to D and D to mu on all random sequences. The Hellinger distance measuring closeness of two distributions plays a central role.

Abstract:
Solomonoff's central result on induction is that the posterior of a universal semimeasure M converges rapidly and with probability 1 to the true sequence generating posterior mu, if the latter is computable. Hence, M is eligible as a universal sequence predictor in case of unknown mu. Despite some nearby results and proofs in the literature, the stronger result of convergence for all (Martin-Loef) random sequences remained open. Such a convergence result would be particularly interesting and natural, since randomness can be defined in terms of M itself. We show that there are universal semimeasures M which do not converge for all random sequences, i.e. we give a partial negative answer to the open problem. We also provide a positive answer for some non-universal semimeasures. We define the incomputable measure D as a mixture over all computable measures and the enumerable semimeasure W as a mixture over all enumerable nearly-measures. We show that W converges to D and D to mu on all random sequences. The Hellinger distance measuring closeness of two distributions plays a central role.

Abstract:
We provide some examples showing how game-theoretic arguments can be used in computability theory and algorithmic information theory: unique numbering theorem (Friedberg), the gap between conditional complexity and total conditional complexity, Epstein--Levin theorem and some (yet unpublished) result of Muchnik and Vyugin

Abstract:
The main goal of this article is to put some known results in a common perspective and to simplify their proofs. We start with a simple proof of a result of Vereshchagin saying that $\limsup_n C(x|n)$ equals $C^{0'}(x)$. Then we use the same argument to prove similar results for prefix complexity, a priori probability on binary tree, to prove Conidis' theorem about limits of effectively open sets, and also to improve the results of Muchnik about limit frequencies. As a by-product, we get a criterion of 2-randomness proved by Miller: a sequence $X$ is 2-random if and only if there exists $c$ such that any prefix $x$ of $X$ is a prefix of some string $y$ such that $C(y)\ge |y|-c$. (In the 1960ies this property was suggested in Kolmogorov as one of possible randomness definitions.) We also get another 2-randomness criterion by Miller and Nies: $X$ is 2-random if and only if $C(x)\ge |x|-c$ for some $c$ and infinitely many prefixes $x$ of $X$. This is a modified version of our old paper that contained a weaker (and cumbersome) version of Conidis' result, and the proof used low basis theorem (in quite a strange way). The full version was formulated there as a conjecture. This conjecture was later proved by Conidis. Bruno Bauwens (personal communication) noted that the proof can be obtained also by a simple modification of our original argument, and we reproduce Bauwens' argument with his permission.

Abstract:
The main goal of this paper is to put some known results in a common perspective and to simplify their proofs. We start with a simple proof of a result from (Vereshchagin, 2002) saying that $\limsup_n\KS(x|n)$ (here $\KS(x|n)$ is conditional (plain) Kolmogorov complexity of $x$ when $n$ is known) equals $\KS^{\mathbf{0'}(x)$, the plain Kolmogorov complexity with $\mathbf{0'$-oracle. Then we use the same argument to prove similar results for prefix complexity (and also improve results of (Muchnik, 1987) about limit frequencies), a priori probability on binary tree and measure of effectively open sets. As a by-product, we get a criterion of $\mathbf{0'}$ Martin-L\"of randomness (called also 2-randomness) proved in (Miller, 2004): a sequence $\omega$ is 2-random if and only if there exists $c$ such that any prefix $x$ of $\omega$ is a prefix of some string $y$ such that $\KS(y)\ge |y|-c$. (In the 1960ies this property was suggested in (Kolmogorov, 1968) as one of possible randomness definitions; its equivalence to 2-randomness was shown in (Miller, 2004) while proving another 2-randomness criterion (see also (Nies et al. 2005)): $\omega$ is 2-random if and only if $\KS(x)\ge |x|-c$ for some $c$ and infinitely many prefixes $x$ of $\omega$. Finally, we show that the low-basis theorem can be used to get alternative proofs for these results and to improve the result about effectively open sets; this stronger version implies the 2-randomness criterion mentioned in the previous sentence.

Abstract:
the balance between fibrinolytic activity and coagulation mechanisms seems to play an important role in the rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (sah) due to aneurysmatic rupture. in the present paper we describe our findings in a group of patients (n10) with s ah. the plasmatic levels of fibrinogen and their degradation products (fdp), aptt, prothrombin activity and factor xiii were determined within 72 hours of initial bleeding, or of eventual rebleeding. factor xiii activity in the first bleeding was 82.1 ±4%, while the levels of fdp were 3.8±lmg/ml. in patients presenting rebleeding (n4), factor xiii activity was 67.3±4.5% the day it manifested, which is significantly less than the values previously observed (p<0.01), while the fdp level was 4.1±2mg/ml. the decrease of factor xiii activity suggests an important role as regards clot stability in rupture location. it is also possible to attribute a rebleeding predictive value to its activity reduction.

Abstract:
In the present paper, we show the some properties of the fuzzy R-solution of the control linear fuzzy differential inclusions and research the optimal time problems for it.