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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 159682 matches for " Andreas H. Hielscher "
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Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images
Christian D. Klose,Alexander D. Klose,Uwe Netz,Juergen Beuthan,Andreas H. Hielscher
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1117/1.3516705
Abstract: A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratio and image variance with respect to ultra sound as benchmark. In this case, sensitivity and specificity of 0.94 and 0.96 respectively were achieved. These values are much higher than results reported when a) other classification techniques were applied or b) single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities of 0.71 were achieved.
Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides
Bradley J. Beattie, Daniel L. J. Thorek, Charles R. Schmidtlein, Keith S. Pentlow, John L. Humm, Andreas H. Hielscher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031402
Abstract: There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.
The Generalized Spherical Radon Transform and Its Application in Texture Analysis
S. Bernstein,R. Hielscher,H. Schaeben
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: The generalized spherical Radon transform associates the mean values over spherical tori to a function $f$ defined on $\mathbb{S}^3 \subset \mathbb{H}$, where the elements of $\mathbb{S}^3$ are considered as quaternions representing rotations. It is introduced into the analysis of crystallographic preferred orientation and identified with the probability density function corresponding to the angle distribution function $W$. Eventually, this communication suggests a new approach to recover an approximation of $f$ from data sampling $W$. At the same time it provides additional clarification of a recently suggested method applying reproducing kernels and radial basis functions by instructive insight in its involved geometry. The focus is on the correspondence of geometrical and group features but not on the mapping of functions and their spaces.
Ultrasonic Production of Nano-Size Dispersions and Emulsions
Thomas Hielscher
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Ultrasound is a well-established method for particle size reduction in dispersions and emulsions. Ultrasonic processors are used in the generation of nano-size material slurries, dispersions and emulsions because of the potential in the deagglomeration and the reduction of primaries. These are the mechanical effects of ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasound can also be used to influence chemical reactions by the cavitation energy. This is sonochemistry. As the market for nano-size materials grows, the demand for ultrasonic processes at production level increases. At this stage, energy efficiency becomes important. Since the energy required per weight or volume of processed material links directly to the equipment size required, optimization of the process efficiency is essential to reduce investment and operational costs. Furthermore it is required to scale the lab and bench top configurations to this final level without any variations in the process achievements. Scale up by power alone will not do this.
Restoration of Manifold-Valued Images by Half-Quadratic Minimization
Ronny Bergmann,Raymond H. Chan,Ralf Hielscher,Johannes Persch,Gabriele Steidl
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: The paper addresses the generalization of the half-quadratic minimization method for the restoration of images having values in a complete Riemannian manifold. We recall the half-quadratic minimization method using the notation of the c-transform and adapt the algorithm to our special variational setting. We prove the convergence of the method for Hadamard spaces. Extensive numerical examples for images with values on spheres, in the rotation group SO(3) and in the manifold of positive definite matrices demonstrate the excellent performance of the algorithm. In particular, the method with SO(3)-valued data shows promising results for the restoration of images obtained from Electron Backscattered Diffraction which are of interest in material science.
Specific Far Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Phospholipids
Ruth Hielscher,Petra Hellwig
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/279650
Abstract: We describe the specific spectral signature of different phospholipids and sphingolipids in the far infrared. Three specific spectral domains have been found: the head group contributions (600 and 480 cm−1); the modes of the torsion motion of the hydrocarbon chains and of the skeleton vibration (460 to 180 cm−1); and the hydrogen-bonding continuum (below 300 cm−1). Marker bands for individual phospholipids are distinguished.
Matrigel modulates a stem cell phenotype and promotes tumor formation in a mantle cell lymphoma cell line  [PDF]
Abigail Hielscher, Timothy McGuire, Dennis Weisenburger, John Graham Sharp
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2013.33022
Abstract:

Tumors may be maintained by subpopulations of cells possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated the stem cell-like and tumor-forming properties of side population (SP) and CD133+/ CD44+ cells in Granta 519, a human mantle cell lymphoma cell line. The in-vitro Cobblestone Area Forming Cell (CAFC) assay, designed to detect stem and progenitor cells, revealed that SP cells contained the greatest proportion of stem cell-like cells. The addition of Matrigel to CAFC assays of SP and non-SP cells both increased their respective stem cell frequencies in comparison to those cultures without Matrigel, and additionally resulted in observed stem cell frequencies which were the same between SP and non-SP cells. Contrary, Matrigel decreased the stem cell frequencies of CD133+/CD44+ or CD133-/CD44- cells. In-vivo assays revealed tumor formation from Matrigel-mixed SP and non-SP cells, and in one instance, occurred with as few as one Matrigel-mixed SP cell. Vehicle-mixed injections of SP and non-SP tumor cells resulted in tumor formation from SP cells only. Tumor formation did not occur from Matrigel nor hyaluronan (cellular substrate for CD44-expressing cells)-mixed populations of CD133+/CD44+ or CD133-/CD44- cells. These data demonstrate that Matrigel modulates a stem cell phenotype and promotes tumor formation from SP and non-SP cells. The tumor micro-environmental niche and tumor cell to micro-environmental interactions may be important future targets for novel chemotherapeutic agents.

Locality Optimization for Data Parallel Programs
Eric Hielscher,Alex Rubinsteyn,Dennis Shasha
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Productivity languages such as NumPy and Matlab make it much easier to implement data-intensive numerical algorithms. However, these languages can be intolerably slow for programs that don't map well to their built-in primitives. In this paper, we discuss locality optimizations for our system Parakeet, a just-in-time compiler and runtime system for an array-oriented subset of Python. Parakeet dynamically compiles whole user functions to high performance multi-threaded native code. Parakeet makes extensive use of the classic data parallel operators Map, Reduce, and Scan. We introduce a new set of data parallel operators,TiledMap, TiledReduce, and TiledScan, that break up their computations into local pieces of bounded size so as better to make use of small fast memories. We introduce a novel tiling transformation to generate tiled operators automatically. Applying this transformation once tiles the program for cache, and applying it again enables tiling for registers. The sizes for cache tiles are left unspecified until runtime, when an autotuning search is performed. Finally, we evaluate our optimizations on benchmarks and show significant speedups on programs that exhibit data locality.
Serum levels of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as a non-invasive method to evaluate healing after cartilage repair procedures
Andreas H Gomoll
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2730
Abstract: In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Nganvongpanit and colleagues [1], of Chiang Mai University in Thailand, investigated the potential use of serum biomarkers, such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), to evaluate healing after cartilage repair procedures. They randomly assigned dogs to treatment with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) versus subchondral drilling (SD) and followed the animals for 24 weeks post-operatively with multiple blood draws and a cartilage biopsy at final follow-up.Cartilage defects are a common diagnosis, encountered in over 60% of knee arthroscopies [2]. While the natural history and pathophysiology of cartilage defects remain controversial, a significant number of patients present with symptoms that warrant surgical intervention. These patients undergo various cartilage repair procedures to repair the damaged articular surfaces, including microfracture, osteochondral autografting, and ACI. Progress in the field of cartilage repair has been impeded in part by the relative lack of adequate instruments to evaluate the quality of the reparative tissue. While histological evaluation is desirable, researchers have found it difficult to recruit patients for a second surgical procedure to harvest a tissue biopsy solely for research purposes. Imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have made significant progress in recent years. Certain cartilage-specific techniques such as delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T1-rho and T2-mapping have promise to assess tissue quality by indirectly measuring glycosaminoglycan content [3,4]. However, these techniques are associated with substantial cost and potential risk to the patient from contrast exposure; therefore, the development of alternative non-invasive techniques is desirable. In particular, blood tests, which could be repeated multiple times with minimal discomfort to the patient, would present an ideal method to
Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives
Gerstner, Andreas O. H.
GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , 2008,
Abstract: Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task.
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