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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14507 matches for " Andrea Siegel "
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Sociology of Objects Case Study: Terra-cotta Playing Hide-and-seek in the Art Worlds
Andrea Siegel
Music and Arts in Action , 2009,
Abstract: Sociological inquiry has been mostly absent from the investigation of mass-produced material goods, especially materials in the architectural arts. If sociology takes as a subject social networks in modern society — one of whose chief characteristics is mass production — then the “mutually determining” relationships between the material results of mass-production and social networks should have a central place in sociological study. Art worlds are constructed both by people and the objects they work with: people make objects which, in turn, influence people in an ongoing dialectic. By tracing aspects of architectural terra-cotta production through the modern period, this paper demonstrates that the specific investigation of a mass-produced art object, which is also a unique architectural and sculptural material, both lends itself to particular social networks in its use and creation and also brings greater richness to issues of sociological concern, including the importance of how the object itself plays a role in social networks, the exploration of architecture as art worlds, and the use of Becker’s “art worlds” concept to study mass production. In doing so, this article contributes new aspects of investigation to the study of art worlds, such as topics related to the roles of geography, technology, finances, mass media, labor competition, fashion, identity, durability and public safety, in combination with one another.
Examination of Three Case Studies of Caring for Psychiatric Patients on a Medical Surgical Unit  [PDF]
Victoria Siegel
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.413096
Medical surgical nurses frequently care for patients with psychiatric disorders as one in four people have a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. Since these nurses specialize in medical surgical nursing, they often feel they lack the expertise to care for patients with co-morbid psychiatric problems. This article presents three case studies and delineates nursing care strategies which could assist the medical-surgical nurses in caring for this population.
The MHV68 M2 Protein Drives IL-10 Dependent B Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
Andrea M. Siegel,Jeremy H. Herskowitz,Samuel H. Speck
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000039
Abstract: Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1α. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10?/? B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells—perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis—identifying a strategy that appears to be conserved between at least EBV and MHV68.
The rationale for pre-race aspirin to protect susceptible runners from sudden cardiac death during marathons: Deconstructing the Pheidippides conundrum  [PDF]
Arthur J. Siegel
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35A003
Abstract: Objectives: While endurance exercise such as training for marathons is cardioprotective, cardiac arrests and sudden death occur in previously healthy runners during races predominantly in middle-aged males due to atherosclerotic heart disease. Recent evidence related to this problem is reviewed herein including epidemiologic studies and findings related to acute cardiac risk in asymptomatic middle-aged male runners during races. Method: Literature review related to the above. Findings: The risks of cardiac arrest and sudden death were 1 in 57,002 and 1 in 171,005 respectively in runners with a mean age of 49.7 years among 1,710,052 participants in marathons in the United States since 1980. Atherosclerotic heart disease was the cause of death in over 90% of cases in two retrospective studies and a greater than two-fold increase in cardiac arrests was observed in middle-aged men in the latter half of a 10-year prospective registry beginning in the year 2000. Asymptomatic middle-aged male runners showed elevated biomarkers of inflammation such as interleukin-6, C-reactive protein together with procoagulant effects including in vivo platelet activation, indicating susceptibility to atherothrombosis. Conclusions: Antithrombotic prophylaxis is evidence-based by validated clinical paradigms to prevent cardiac arrest and sudden death in susceptibile marathon runners at high risk for atherothrombosis during races.

Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death during Marathons with Pre-Race Aspirin  [PDF]
Arthur J. Siegel
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.58024
Abstract: Objectives: Prevention of sudden cardiac death is the number one clinical priority in sports cardiology. While the overall cardiovascular risk of long distance running is acknowledged as low, the frequency of cardiac arrests and sudden death has increased in middle-aged males during marathons since the year 2000. An evidence-based strategy for protecting susceptible runners from these acute cardiac events during races is considered based on identification of the underlying cause. Method: Review of articles in Pub Med on adverse cardiac events during marathons. Findings: Recent epidemiological studies have identified an increasing frequency of cardiac arrest in middle-aged males during marathons since the year 2000 with atherosclerotic heart disease as the main cause of sudden cardiac death. Same-aged asymptomatic middle-aged male physician-runners showed a post-race polymorphonuclear leukocytosis with sequential increases in interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as a likely consequence of rhabdomyolysis after “hitting the wall”. Increased fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and D-dimer with in vivo platelet activation indicated a concurrent hemostatic imbalance with pro-coagulant effects. Cardiac troponins I and T and NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were elevated after races as additionally predictive of acute cardiac events in asymptomatic persons. Conclusions: High short-term risk for acute cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged male runners is shown by stratification of validated biomarkers, which may render non-obstructive coronary atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to rupture during marathons. Pre-race aspirin usage is prudent to reduce these events mediated by atherothrombosis based on conclusive evidence for prevention of first acute myocardial infarctions in same-aged healthy male physicians. Prospective studies are needed to determine the efficacy of pre-race low-dose aspirin for curtailing the increasing frequency of race-related cardiac arrest and sudden death in susceptible runners.
Small Interfering RNA Efficiently Suppresses Adhesion Molecule Expression on Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelium
Tobias Walker,Julian Siegel,Andrea Nolte,Silke Hartmann,Angela Kornberger,Volker Steger,Hans-Peter Wendel
Journal of Nucleic Acids , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/694789
Abstract: Background. Adhesion molecules are known to influence postoperative organ function, they are hardly involved in the inflammatory response following the ischemia-reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate the potency of small interfering RNAs to suppress adhesion molecule expression in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Methods. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells were transfected with specific siRNA followed by a stimulation of the cells with an inflammatory cytokine. Adhesion molecule expression was determined by FACS-analysis, and reduction of intracellular mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the attachment of isolated neutrophils on the endothelial layer was determined after siRNA transfection. Results. In summary, siRNA transfection significantly decreased the percentage positive cells in a single cocktail transfection of each adhesion molecule investigated. Adhering neutrophils were diminished as well. Conclusion. siRNA might be a promising tool for the effective suppression of adhesion molecule expression on pulmonary microvascular cells, potentially minimizing leukocyte-endothelial depending interactions of a pulmonary allograft. 1. Introduction Formerly used as an ultimate ratio in end-stage pulmonary diseases, lung transplantation has become a commonly accepted therapy with an increasing number of procedures performed annually. Despite the considerable advantages of perioperative medical care, two main problems remain unresolved: rejection of the graft and primary graft failure (PGF) of the allograft defined by a noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema appearing shortly after reperfusion of the transplanted organ. Large clinical trials report an incidence of between 22% and 57% in patients receiving a lung transplant [1, 2]. A central factor involved in the development of PGF seems to be the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of pulmonary endothelial cells. They represent a group of different glycoproteins and carbohydrates expressed on the surface of a wide variety of cell types, including endothelial cells. By interfering with receptors on the leukocytes, these adhesion molecules allow initial contact between the leukocytes and the vessel wall. Firm adhesion and transendothelial migration follow, resulting in a sequestration of leukocytes at the endothelium and the later infiltration of the interstitial space. The release of proteolytic enzymes and oxygen-free radicals contributes to damage of the alveolar membrane, resulting in noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Furthermore, some adhesion molecules seem to
Misalignment between perceptions and actual global burden of disease: evidence from the US population
Karen R. Siegel,Andrea B. Feigl,Sandeep P. Kishore,David Stuckler
Global Health Action , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.6339
Abstract: Significant funding of health programs in low-income countries comes from external sources, mainly private donors and national development agencies of high-income countries. How these external funds are allocated remains a subject of ongoing debate, as studies have revealed that external funding may misalign with the underlying disease burden. One determinant of the priorities set by both private donors and development agencies is the perceptions of populations living in high-income countries about which diseases are legitimate for global health intervention. While research has been conducted on the priorities expressed by recipient communities, relatively less has been done to assess those of the donating country. To investigate people's beliefs about the disease burden in high-income countries, we compared publicly available data from U.S. surveys of people's perceptions of the leading causes of death in developing countries against measures of the actual disease burden from the World Health Organization. We found little correlation between the U.S. public's perception and the actual disease burden, measured as either mortality or disability-adjusted life years. While there is potential for reverse causality, so that donor programs drive public perceptions, these findings suggest that increasing the general population's awareness of the true global disease burden could help better align global health funding with population health needs.
Anti-Tumor Effect of Doxycycline on Glioblastoma Cells
Andrea Wang-Gillam,Eric Siegel,Debra A. Mayes,Laura F. Hutchins
Journal of Cancer Molecules , 2007,
Abstract: AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in humans, and it is highly invasive. Doxycycline, first identified as an antimicrobial agent, is a nonspecific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our objective was to investigate the anti-MMP effect of doxycycline at therapeutically acceptable levels on glioma cells in vitro. METHODS: The MTT assay was used to determine the anti-proliferative effects of doxycycline. MMP2 activity and expression were determined by gelatinase zymography and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Cell invasion was assessed by Matrigel invasion assay. RESULTS: Doxycycline exerted mild anti-proliferative effects on all three glioma cell lines (U251HF, U87 and LN229). In U251HF cells, doxycycline decreased extracellular MMP2 activity and reduced cell invasiveness. Moreover, MMP2 mRNA levels were not altered, suggesting that doxycycline regulates MMP2 activity posttranslationally. Alternatively, doxycycline increased the expression and extracellular activity of MMP2 in U87 cells. This may reflect the cellular stress-response related to the cytotoxic effects experienced by U87 cells in response to doxycycline exposure. CONCLUSION: Doxycycline in therapeutic concentrations decreases MMP2 activity and cell invasion in the most aggressive cell line tested, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic MMP inhibitor. The cytotoxic effects of doxycycline, however, can enhance MMP2 expression, and this deserves further exploration.
Outer measures and weak regularity of measures
Dale Siegel
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1995, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171295000056
Abstract: This paper investigates smoothness properties of probability measures on lattices which imply regularity, and then considers weaker versions of regularity; in particular, weakly regular, vaguely regular, and slightly regular. They are derived from commonly used outer measures, and we analyze them mainly for the case of I( ¢ ’) or for those elements of I( ¢ ’) with added smoothness conditions.
Weak regularity of probability measures
Dale Siegel
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1998, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171298001008
Abstract: This paper examines smoothness attributes of probability measures on lattices which indicate regularity, and then discusses weaker forms of regularity; specifically, weakly regular and vaguely regular. They are obtained from commonly used outer measures, and we study them mainly for the case of M( ¢ ’) or for those components of M( ¢ ’) with added smoothness prerequisites. This is a generalization of many concepts presented in my earlier paper (see [1]).
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